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Publications dans les journaux scientifiques dans le domaine de l'ingénierie : 02-2018 trié par par titre, page: 0
» "A Long Time Ago in a Galaxy Far, Far Away..." [Turnstile]
Résumé:
Auteurs: Rajeev Bansal;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 104 - 104
Editeur: IEEE
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» $X$ -Band Circularly Polarized Electronically Steerable Parasitic Array Radiator of DRA
Résumé:
In this paper, an $X$ -band electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) of circularly polarized dielectric resonator antennas (CP-DRAs) is proposed. The array consists of one driven CP-DRA coupled to four parasitic CP-DRAs. The parasitic elements are placed adopting a sequential rotation approach and are terminated by tunable varactors to steer the beam into the desired direction. The proposed CP-ESPAR technique eliminates the need of expensive phase shifters, which significantly reduces cost and fabrication complexity. For performance evaluation, a prototype of the proposed antenna is designed, fabricated, and measured. It is observed that the proposed antenna has a monotonic CP beam scanning from −22° to 22° operating at 10.5 GHz. In addition, the peak value of the realized gain is 6.6 dBic with 0.9 dB variation within the entire scanning range.
Auteurs: Reza Movahedinia;Abdel-Razik Sebak;Mohammad Reza Chaharmir;Mohammad Ranjbar Nikkhah;Ahmed A. Kishk;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 721 - 728
Editeur: IEEE
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» 100 Gb/s Differential Linear TIAs With Less Than 10 pA/ $sqrt {mathrm {Hz}}$ in 130-nm SiGe:C BiCMOS
Résumé:
The design methodology and circuit implementation of a transimpedance (TI) amplifier (TIA) featuring low averaged input-referred current noise density without compromising the TIA bandwidth (BW) are presented. The technology role in the key performance metrics is also discussed and verified by means of two analogous TIA designs implemented in two different 130-nm SiGe:C BiCMOS processes from IHP, SG13S with $f_{T}/f_{max }= 250/340$ GHz and SG13G2 with $f_{T}/f_{max }= 300/500$ GHz. Both TIAs adopt a fully differential linear architecture with three stages: an input shunt-feedback TI stage followed by a variable gain amplifier which provides post-amplification with 15-dB gain control range and an output 50- $Omega $ buffer. The TIA in SG13S features 68.5 dB $Omega $ differential TI gain, 42-GHz 3-dB BW, and 8 pA/ $sqrt {mathrm {Hz}}$ averaged input-referred current noise density while the second TIA in SG13G2 provides 65 dB $Omega $ differential TI gain, 66-GHz 3-dB BW, and 7.6 pA/ $sqrt {mathrm {Hz}}$ . Measured total harmonic distortion in both TIAs in the maximum gain condition is better than 5% for ~800 mVppd output swing and input currents of ~300 $mu $ App. Both circuits dissipate 150 mW of power and are shown to operate at up to 100 Gb/s data rate with clean PRBS31 non-return to zero and PAM-4 eye diagrams. To the authorȁ- ;s best knowledge, the reported TIAs exhibit the lowest averaged input-referred current noise density shown to date at a BW sufficient to support 100 Gb/s net data rate, surpassing other silicon-based and InP implementations toward the next-generation 400 Gb/s optical links.
Auteurs: Iria García López;Ahmed Awny;Pedro Rito;Minsu Ko;Ahmet Cagri Ulusoy;Dietmar Kissinger;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 458 - 469
Editeur: IEEE
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» 1024-Pixel CMOS Multimodality Joint Cellular Sensor/Stimulator Array for Real-Time Holistic Cellular Characterization and Cell-Based Drug Screening
Résumé:
This paper presents a fully integrated CMOS multimodality joint sensor/stimulator array with 1024 pixels for real-time holistic cellular characterization and drug screening. The proposed system consists of four pixel groups and four parallel signal-conditioning blocks. Every pixel group contains 16 × 16 pixels, and each pixel includes one $text{28},mu text{m}times text{28},mu text{m}$ gold-plated electrode, four $text{12},mu text{m}times text{12},mu text{m}$ photodiodes, and in-pixel circuits, within a $text{58},mu text{m}times text{58},mu text{m}$ pixel footprint. Each pixel supports real-time extracellular potential recording, optical detection, charge-balanced biphasic current stimulation, and cellular impedance measurement for the same cellular sample. The proposed system is fabricated in a standard 130-nm CMOS process. Rat cardiomyocytes are successfully cultured on-chip. Measured high-resolution optical opacity images, extracellular potential recordings, biphasic current stimulations, and cellular impedance images demonstrate the unique advantages of the system for holistic cell characterization and drug screening. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the use of optical detection on the on-chip cultured cardiomyocytes to real-time track their cyclic beating pattern and beating rate.
Auteurs: Jong Seok Park;Moez Karim Aziz;Sensen Li;Taiyun Chi;Sandra Ivonne Grijalva;Jung Hoon Sung;Hee Cheol Cho;Hua Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 80 - 94
Editeur: IEEE
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» 110-GHz Through-Substrate-Via Transition Based on Copper Nanowires in Alumina Membrane
Résumé:
A new through-substrate via (TSV) for millimeter-wave frequencies is proposed. The via is formed by copper nanowires connecting the bottom and top surfaces of a porous alumina membrane. It is shown here that the nanowire via is simple to fabricate using a low-cost technology. The nanowire vias were tested as coplanar waveguide transitions and characterized up to 110 GHz. The results show insertion loss better than 0.37 dB and return loss better than 14 dB per transition at 110 GHz. An electrical model for the vias was derived to give a design tool for circuit designers. These TSVs, along with the high-performance transmission lines already developed on the porous alumina membranes, contribute to a powerful platform for the design of high-performance circuits on this innovative interposer.
Auteurs: Júlio M. Pinheiro;Gustavo P. Rehder;Leonardo G. Gomes;Rogerio C. A. Alvarenga;Marcus V. Pelegrini;Florence Podevin;Philippe Ferrari;Ariana L. C. Serrano;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 784 - 790
Editeur: IEEE
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» 152-dB Dynamic Range With a Large-Area Custom-Technology Single-Photon Avalanche Diode
Résumé:
In this letter, we demonstrate a dynamic range as high as 152 dB with a detection head based on a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD). This result has been attained by exploiting two key factors: on one hand, the low dark count rate (9 cps) of a custom-technology SPAD; and on the other hand, the maximum count rate (120 Mcps) achievable with a new generation active quenching circuit and an optimized assembly of the system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest dynamic range reported so far in the literature for a SPAD. Even more important, this value has been attained without sacrificing other detector parameters, such as active area diameter (50 $mu$ m), photon detection efficiency (50% at 550-nm wavelength), and afterpulsing probability (2%).
Auteurs: Francesco Ceccarelli;Giulia Acconcia;Ivan Labanca;Angelo Gulinatti;Massimo Ghioni;Ivan Rech;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 391 - 394
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2–18 GHz Conformal Low-Profile Log-Periodic Array on a Cylindrical Conductor
Résumé:
This paper presents a conformal log-periodic array covering an ultra-wideband of 2–18 GHz. It employs monopoles of different heights for the high band, top-hat monopoles for the middle band, and folded top-hat monopoles for the low band. The top hats help to achieve a low profile of the monopoles while the folding is to maintain a good input resistance at the low band. A meandering microstrip line on the bottom is used to feed the array. The proposed antenna is mounted on a conducting cylindrical surface with all the top hats conformal and aligned to the outline of the cylinder. A prototype is fabricated and tested. Measured results show that an impedance bandwidth from 2 to 18.3 GHz (9.15:1) for VSWR < 2 is obtained. Over the same band, the measured gain is better than 7.2 dBi. The antenna has a very low profile of $0.053~lambda _{L}$ at the lowest operating frequency, which should be useful in many communication systems such as missile and airborne applications.
Auteurs: Qiaoyu Chen;Zhenxin Hu;Zhongxiang Shen;Wen Wu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 729 - 736
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2017 General Meeting: A More Secure, Resilient, & Adaptable Grid [Society News]
Résumé:
Presents information on the PES society 2017 General Meeting.
Auteurs: D.F. Hall;
Apparue dans: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 66 - 68
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2017 IEEE Education Society Awards, 2017 Frontiers in Education Conference Awards, and Selected IEEE Awards
Résumé:
The IEEE Education Society, the IEEE Computer Society, and the American Society for Engineering Education Educational Research and Methods Division (ASEE-ERM) sponsored the 47th Frontiers in Education (FIE) Conference in Indianapolis, IN, USA, held October 18–21, 2017. Claudio R. Brito, President of the IEEE Education Society, and Stephen T. Frezza, Chair of the FIE Steering Committee, presented awards sponsored by the Education Society and the FIE Conference. In addition, the IEEE Undergraduate Teaching Award, which is administered by the IEEE Awards Board and sponsored by the IEEE Education Society, was presented by Karen Bartleson, IEEE President.
Auteurs: Edwin C. Jones;James J. Sluss;Bonnie H. Ferri;Terri S. Fiez;Joseph L. A. Hughes;Rob Reilly;Ali Mehrizi-Sani;Jeffrey E. Froyd;Justin M. Foley;Shanna Daly;Catherine Lenaway;Jamie Phillips;Yu-Tzu Lin;Cheng-Chih Wu;Ting-Yun Hou;Yu-Chih Lin;Fang-Ying Yang
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Education
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 74 - 83
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2017 IEEE Educational Activities Board Awards
Résumé:
The 2017 IEEE Educational Activities Board (EAB), chaired by IEEE Educational Activities Vice President S. K. Ramesh, upon the recommendation of the EAB Awards and Recognition Committee (ARC) has named the recipients of the 2017 IEEE EAB Awards. EAB Awards recognize and honor individuals and companies for major contributions to engineering and technical education. Awards are given for meritorious activities in accreditation, continuing education, educational innovation, pre-university education, service to the IEEE EAB, standards education, employee professional development, and informal education systems, as well as related achievements that advance the practice of engineering and engineering education.
Auteurs: Lorena Garcia;Sid Suryanarayanan;Jamal Madni;Asad M. Madni;Ryan Fraser;Shi Bu;Adam Foster Moreau;Hemchandra M. Shertukde;Gil Sik Lee;Sarah A. Rajala;Martin A. Reed;Ezaldeen Jamel Abd Alhalem Najjar;Cristina Olaverri Monreal;John A. Orr;Sanjit K. Mitr
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Education
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 84 - 90
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2018 IEEE CIS Awards [Society Briefs]
Résumé:
Presents the recipients of 2018 CIS society awards.
Auteurs: Jose C. Principe;
Apparue dans: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 10 - 12
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2018?? Already?? [Editorial]
Résumé:
Yes, it is already 2018! Time is flying... but let's look at the bright side of it. We have 365 new days to live, love and enjoy life. And, on top of that, 365 new days to read and enjoy our magazine! A lot of new topics, new articles and new discussions are coming your way in 2018! This February issue is dedicated to the Fabrication Laboratories all around the world! A couple of years ago FabLabs were new and rare. Now you can find them almost everywhere. But what is a FabLab?
Auteurs: Wendy Van Moer;
Apparue dans: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 2 - 2
Editeur: IEEE
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» 24/7 Place Recognition by View Synthesis
Résumé:
We address the problem of large-scale visual place recognition for situations where the scene undergoes a major change in appearance, for example, due to illumination (day/night), change of seasons, aging, or structural modifications over time such as buildings being built or destroyed. Such situations represent a major challenge for current large-scale place recognition methods. This work has the following three principal contributions. First, we demonstrate that matching across large changes in the scene appearance becomes much easier when both the query image and the database image depict the scene from approximately the same viewpoint. Second, based on this observation, we develop a new place recognition approach that combines (i) an efficient synthesis of novel views with (ii) a compact indexable image representation. Third, we introduce a new challenging dataset of 1,125 camera-phone query images of Tokyo that contain major changes in illumination (day, sunset, night) as well as structural changes in the scene. We demonstrate that the proposed approach significantly outperforms other large-scale place recognition techniques on this challenging data.
Auteurs: Akihiko Torii;Relja Arandjelović;Josef Sivic;Masatoshi Okutomi;Tomas Pajdla;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 40, issue:2, pages: 257 - 271
Editeur: IEEE
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» 28 GHz Switched-Beam Antenna Based on S-PIN Diodes for 5G Mobile Communications
Résumé:
This letter presents a 28 GHz switched five-beam antenna system based on a rectangular waveguide and a reconfigurable semiconductor circuit (RSC) with slots. Surface p-i-n diodes are used to close or open slots in order to achieve required configuration of an aperture. The RSC with a modified WR28 waveguide composes a reconfigurable radiating structure (RRS), which provides three beams directed toward 0°, 30°, and 45°. Beam switching is achieved by reconfigurable arrangement of a set of slots. Complementary RRSs connected to the electromechanical RF switch is used to generate remaining −30° and −45° beams. The gain of each generated beam is similar because different numbers of slots are opened, i.e., three, five, and nine slots for beams directed toward 0°, 30°, and 45°, respectively. Aperture of the antenna is controlled by a unit composed of high-current operational amplifiers. Measured results validate the performance of designed millimeter-wave reconfigurable antenna.
Auteurs: Yevhen Yashchyshyn;Krzysztof Derzakowski;Grzegorz Bogdan;Konrad Godziszewski;Denys Nyzovets;Cheol Ho Kim;Bonghyuk Park;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 225 - 228
Editeur: IEEE
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» 2875 nm Lasing From Ho3+-Doped Fluoroindate Glass Fibers
Résumé:
Ho3+-doped fluoroindate glass fibers (FIGFs) based on InF3-GaF3-ZnF2-BaF2-SrF2-YF3-LiF-PbF2 glasses were fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. By using a 92-cm-long Ho3+-doped FIGF as the gain medium and a 1120-nm fiber laser as the pump source, lasing at 2875 nm was obtained for a threshold pump power of 278 mW. By further increasing the pump power to 1224 mW, the obtained maximum output power was about 54.5 mW. The corresponding slope efficiency was about 6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report lasing at 2875 nm from Ho3+-doped FIGFs.
Auteurs: Shijie Jia;Zhixu Jia;Chuanfei Yao;Lei Zhang;Yan Feng;Guanshi Qin;Yasutake Ohishi;Weiping Qin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 323 - 326
Editeur: IEEE
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» 3-kHz Spectral Linewidth Laser Assembly With Coherent Optical Negative Feedback
Résumé:
We demonstrate the stable operation of a narrow-linewidth semiconductor laser source based on a coherent optical negative feedback system. The linewidth was reduced to 3 kHz from 13.5 MHz. The power spectral density of frequency modulation (FM) noise was reduced by 35 dB, while the relative intensity noise was low enough for a light source for optical communications (less than −140 dB/Hz). Additionally, the system showed stable operation more than an hour. Our results indicate that the instability of a laser system is caused by fluctuations in the feedback loop length due to the mechanical vibrations, which can be suppressed by the robust integration of the system.
Auteurs: K. Aoyama;N. Yokota;H. Yasaka;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 277 - 280
Editeur: IEEE
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» 400-MHz/2.4-GHz Combo WPAN Transceiver IC for Simultaneous Dual-Band Communication With One Single Antenna
Résumé:
A 400-MHz/2.4-GHz combo transceiver (TRX) integrated chip (IC) Supporting simultaneous dual-band communication is designed and fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology for compact wireless personal area network applications. The IC is composed of a 3–10 Mb/s quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)/offset QPSK (OQPSK) TRX working at the 400–500 MHz band, and a 1–3 Mb/s Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK)/half sine OQPSK (HS-OQPSK) TRX at the 2.4–2.4835 GHz band for the Bluetooth low energy/IEEE 802.15.4 protocols. The presented combo TRX IC requires one single antenna without any bidirectional RF coupler, to support simultaneous dual-band communication. Two key circuit techniques, namely, the combination biasing technique to suppress the high-order harmonics and the active in-band interference cancellation, are adopted to tackle the crosstalk interference between the two bands during simultaneous dual-band operation. Measurement results show that the in-band interference presented to the 2.4-GHz receiver due to the 400-MHz transmitter is suppressed by 19 dB with the presented design techniques.
Auteurs: Zhaoyang Weng;Hanjun Jiang;Jingjing Dong;Yang Li;Jingyi Zheng;Yiyu Shen;Fule Li;Woogeun Rhee;Zhihua Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 745 - 757
Editeur: IEEE
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» 4H-SiC Detector in High Photons and Ions Irradiation Regime
Résumé:
A Silicon carbide detector, based on a Schottky diode technology with an interdigitated front electrode design, was employed to monitor photons and low-energy ions. Photons were generated by a He-Cd laser with maximum optical power density of 64 mW/cm2, while a plasma generated by a pulsed laser at low intensity (1010 W/cm2), was used to produce low-energy Al and C ions. The measured detector yield in the case of the photon detection increases linearly with the optical power density, and shows saturation at high power densities, being the saturation value depending on the applied detector bias. A similar behavior is observed for ion detection, where the detector response saturates with increasing ion energy. Carrier generation rate was extracted from the experimental data obtaining almost equal values for photon and ion irradiations, allowing also to extract a maximum generation rate of about $8 times 10^{19}$ carriers/cm $^{3}cdot text {s}$ as upper limit for the linear operation of the detector.
Auteurs: A. Sciuto;G. D’Arrigo;S. Di Franco;M. Mazzillo;G. Franzò;L. Torrisi;L. Calcagno;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 599 - 604
Editeur: IEEE
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» 60 GHz Dual-Circularly Polarized Planar Aperture Antenna and Array
Résumé:
This communication presents new designs of dual-circularly polarized (CP) planar aperture antenna and array for 60 GHz applications. First, a four-port planar aperture antenna with its feeding network is developed that exhibits wide impedance bandwidth, dual-CP radiation as well as high gain. Then, based on the proposed antenna, a new scheme of building a dual-CP array is proposed. With this new scheme that combines the power splitting network and series feeding method, four sequentially fed antenna elements are successfully combined to form a CP radiation array. The experimental results show that the −10 dB impedance bandwidths of the antenna and the array are more than 18.2% (55–66 GHz). While the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidths are from 54.2 to 64.3 GHz (17.2%) for the antenna and from 54.8 to 65 GHz (17%) for the array. The maximum gains achieved are 13.7 and 17.85 dBic for the antenna and array, respectively.
Auteurs: Jianfeng Zhu;Shaowei Liao;Yang Yang;Shufang Li;Quan Xue;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1014 - 1019
Editeur: IEEE
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» 65-fs Pulses at 2 $mu text{m}$ in a Compact Tm-Doped All-Fiber Laser by Dispersion and Nonliearity Management
Résumé:
We report a compact ultrafast thulium-doped all-fiber laser delivering 65-fs pulses through nonlinear compression in a dispersion and nonlinearity managed fiber chain. The laser outputs 560-mW, 3.2-nJ pulses with a very broad bandwidth >160 nm at the central wavelength of 1980 nm. Numerical simulation investigates and verifies the formation and evolution of the ultrafast pulse.
Auteurs: Biao Sun;Jiaqi Luo;Ying Zhang;Qijie Wang;Xia Yu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 303 - 306
Editeur: IEEE
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» 650-V Double-Channel Lateral Schottky Barrier Diode With Dual-Recess Gated Anode
Résumé:
An AlGaN/GaN double-channel Schottky barrier diode (DC-SBD) with dual-recess gated anode is demonstrated in this letter. The DC-SBD features two recess steps. The deep one cuts through two channels, and the anode metal contacts 2DEG directly from the sidewall of the recessed heterostructure. The shallow one terminates at the upper channel layer and is located adjacent to the Schottky contact. A MOS field plate is placed on the shallow recess region to pinchoff the underlying channels, so the off-state leakage current of the DC-SBD can be suppressed. Since the lower channel is separated from the etched surface, the field-effect mobility beneath this MOS structure shows a high peak value of 1707 cm2/( $text {V}cdot text {s}$ ). The DC-SBD with an anode-to-cathode length ( ${L}_{text {ac}}$ ) of $15~mu text{m}$ exhibits a turn-on voltage ( ${V}_{text {T}}$ ) of ~0.6 V (at 1 mA/mm), a leakage current of 7.8 nA/mm (at −100 V), and a breakdown voltage of 704 V (at $1~mu text{A}$ /mm). The double-channel design also allows both the deep and shallow recesses to be terminated at GaN layers that results in high uniformity of ${V}_{text {T}}$ .
Auteurs: Jiacheng Lei;Jin Wei;Gaofei Tang;Zhaofu Zhang;Qingkai Qian;Zheyang Zheng;Mengyuan Hua;Kevin J. Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 260 - 263
Editeur: IEEE
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» A $256times256$ , 100-kfps, 61% Fill-Factor SPAD Image Sensor for Time-Resolved Microscopy Applications
Résumé:
A $256times256$ single-photon avalanche diode image sensor operating at 100 kfps with fill factor of 61% and pixel pitch of $16~mu text{m}$ is reported. An all-nMOS 7T pixel allows gated operation down to 4 ns and ~600-ps fall time with on-chip delay generation. The sensor operates with 0.996 temporal aperture ratio in rolling shutter. Gating and cooling allow the suppression of dark noise, which, in combination with the high fill factor, enables competitive low-light performance with electron multiplying charge-coupled devices while offering time-resolved imaging modes.
Auteurs: Istvan Gyongy;Neil Calder;Amy Davies;Neale A. W. Dutton;Rory R. Duncan;Colin Rickman;Paul Dalgarno;Robert K. Henderson;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 547 - 554
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 0.032-mm2 0.15-V Three-Stage Charge-Pump Scheme Using a Differential Bootstrapped Ring-VCO for Energy-Harvesting Applications
Résumé:
This brief reports a compact and fully integrated three-stage charge-pump (CP) scheme with a 1:10 step-up ratio for energy-harvesting applications. To undertake a low-voltage input (e.g., from thermoelectric or solar source), our CP scheme features a differential bootstrapped ring-VCO generating six-phase clock signals with a boosted swing. Driven by replicas of these swing-boosted clock signals, the entailed number of CP stages is reduced and a 1:10 step-up ratio can be achieved with only a 3-stage CP, resulting in a higher PCE. Using the replicas of the clock signals also reduces substantially the dependency of the clock frequency on the load drivability. Fabricated in 65-nm CMOS, a 0.87-V output voltage is measured at a 38.8% power conversion efficiency, under a 500- $text{k} {Omega }$ load and a 0.15-V input. The chip area is 0.032 mm2.
Auteurs: Haidong Yi;Jun Yin;Pui-In Mak;Rui P. Martins;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 146 - 150
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS Image Sensor With Phase-Delay-Counting and Oversampling Dual-Slope Integrating Column ADCs Achieving $1{text {e}}^{-}_{mathrm{ rms}}$ Noise at 3.8- $mu text{s}$ Conversion Time
Résumé:
A CMOS image sensor (CIS) is presented, simultaneously achieving low noise and high frame rate. The imager innovatively employs column-parallel dual-slope (DS) integrating analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) based on a phase-delay-counting principle and using oversampling to suppress the readout thermal noise. A noise analysis of the DS-integrating ADC in correlated-double-sampling operation is provided to prove the low-noise advantage of the proposed architecture. Furthermore, the design considerations of the presented architecture are derived based on the analysis of nonideality effects. Based on these analytical results, design tradeoffs are discussed and applied in the test chip. The test chip, fabricated in a 4M1P 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CIS technology, contains a $128 times 128$ pixel array. The measurement results show that each of the 128 column-level ADCs converts a pixel in 3.8 $mu text{s}$ and achieves a noise floor of $1text {e}^{-}_{mathrm{ rms}}$ . The chip consumes 49 mW excluding the I/O power and 59 mW including the I/O power, resulting in a very good figure of merit value of 1.4 and 1.7 [e.nJ], respectively.
Auteurs: Ha Le-Thai;Genis Chapinal;Tomas Geurts;Georges G. E. Gielen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 515 - 526
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 0.55 V 1.1 mW Artificial Intelligence Processor With On-Chip PVT Compensation for Autonomous Mobile Robots
Résumé:
Autonomous mobile robots are receiving a lot of attention for many applications, such as package delivery and smart surveillance, however, the battery capacity is limited to implement intelligent decision making in robots because of the heavy computational costs. In this paper, an ultra-low-power artificial intelligence processor (AIP) is proposed for real-time decision making of autonomous mobile robots. To achieve low power consumption while maintaining high performance, it adopts four key features: 1) an 8-thread tree search processor for real-time path planning; 2) a reinforcement learning accelerator for the avoidance of unexpected obstacles; 3) a 3-level transposition table cache for the reduction of duplicated computations; and 4) a PVT compensation circuit for the stable operation at near-threshold voltage. The proposed 16 mm $^{{{2}}}$ AIP is fabricated using 65-nm triple-well CMOS technology. It consumes only 1.1 mW at 0.55 V supply voltage and 7 MHz operating frequency, and 151 mW at 1.2 V supply voltage and 245 MHz operating frequency. The AIP achieves fast search speed (470 000 search/s) and low energy consumption (79 nJ/search), and it is successfully applied to a battery-powered robot system for autonomous navigation without any collision in dynamic indoor environments.
Auteurs: Youchang Kim;Dongjoo Shin;Jinsu Lee;Yongsu Lee;Hoi-Jun Yoo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 567 - 580
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 0.66erms Temporal-Readout-Noise 3-D-Stacked CMOS Image Sensor With Conditional Correlated Multiple Sampling Technique
Résumé:
This paper presents a sub-electron temporal readout noise, 8.3 Mpixel and 1.1- $mu text{m}$ pixel pitch 3-D-stacked CMOS image sensor (CIS). A conditional correlated multiple sampling (CMS) technique is introduced to selectively reduce the dark pixel noise by using a full-range ramp and a small-range ramp. In this way, a sub-electron temporal readout noise CIS is achieved without degrading the frame rate dramatically, compared to the conventional CMS method. A column-parallel single slope ADC with dark pixel detection function is proposed as well. A dynamic-dark-signal-region detection technique is used to mitigate differential nonlinearity (DNL) errors due to ramp slope mismatch. The implemented prototype in 45-nm CIS/65-nm CMOS occupies an area of 35.89 mm2. This paper achieves a 0.66erms with 5-time sampling at a frame rate of 7.2 frames/s, which corresponds to a sample-rate frequency of 36.1 kHz for the column ADC. The DNL (11 b) is improved from +0.98 LSB/−0.94 LSB to +0.29 LSB/−0.39 LSB by using dynamic dark-signal region technique. The figure of merit of this paper is 2.02 nVrms/Hz.
Auteurs: Shang-Fu Yeh;Kuo-Yu Chou;Hon-Yih Tu;Calvin Yi-Ping Chao;Fu-Lung Hsueh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 527 - 537
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 1.55 μW Bio-Impedance Measurement System for Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers in 0.18 μm CMOS
Résumé:
This paper presents an implantable bio-impedance measurement system for cardiac pacemakers. The fully integrated system features a low power analog front-end and pulse width modulated output. The bio-impedance readout benefits from voltage to time conversion to achieve a very low power consumption for wirelessly transmitting the data outside the body. The proposed IC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and is capable of measuring the bio-impedance at 2 kHz over a wide dynamic range from ${text{100}},Omega $ to $text{3.3}{;text{k}Omega }$ with $text{1.35};Omega _{{rm{rms}}}$ accuracy and ${text{1}}; {mu}text{A}$ maximum current injection while consuming just $text{1.55}{;{mu}}{text{A}}$ from a 1 V supply.
Auteurs: Milad Zamani;Yasser Rezaeiyan;Omid Shoaei;Wouter A. Serdijn;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 211 - 221
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 1.8-pJ/b, 12.5–25-Gb/s Wide Range All-Digital Clock and Data Recovery Circuit
Résumé:
Recently, there has been a strong drive to replace established analog circuits for multi-gigabit clock and data recovery (CDR) by more digital solutions. We focused on phase locked loop-based all-digital CDR (AD-CDR) techniques which contain a digital loop filter (DLF) and a digital controlled oscillator (DCO) and pushed the digital integration up to a level where our DLF is entirely synthesized. To enable this, we found that extensive subsampling can be used to decrease the speed of the DLF while maintaining a good operation. Additionally, an Inverse Alexander phase detector and a 5.5-bit resolution DCO complete the AD-CDR architecture. As a result of the low complexity and digital architecture, the AD-CDR occupies a compact active chip area of 0.050 mm2 and consumes only 46 mW at 25 Gb/s. This is the smallest area and the lowest power consumption compared with the state-of-the-art. In addition, our implementation is highly tunable due to the synthesized logic, and supports a wide operating range (12.5–25 Gb/s), which is a significantly larger range compared with the previous work. Finally, thanks to our digital architecture, the power dissipation decreases linearly while moving to the lower speeds of our operating range. This is in contrast with the most prior work, making our design truly adaptive.
Auteurs: Marijn Verbeke;Pieter Rombouts;Hannes Ramon;Bart Moeneclaey;Xin Yin;Johan Bauwelinck;Guy Torfs;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 470 - 483
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 10 MHz Read-Out Chain for Electrical Impedance Tomography
Résumé:
This paper presents the design and implementation of a read-out chain for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) imaging. The EIT imaging approach can be incorporated to take spectral images of the tissue under study, offering an affordable, portable device for home health monitoring. A fast read-out channel covering a wide range of frequencies is a must for such applications. The proposed read-out channel comprising a programmable gain instrumentation amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and an ADC driver is designed and fabricated in a 0.18  ${{mu }}$m CMOS technology. The proposed read-out chain operates over the wide frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz, with an average signal-to-noise ratio of more than 60 dB. The entire read-out channel consumes between 6.9 and 21.8 mW, depending on its frequency of operation.
Auteurs: Mohammad Takhti;Yueh-Ching Teng;Kofi Odame;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 222 - 230
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 12-Gb/s -16.8-dBm OMA Sensitivity 23-mW Optical Receiver in 65-nm CMOS
Résumé:
Optical interconnects are being increasingly deployed in data centers to meet growing bandwidth requirements under tight power constraints. Therefore, there has been renewed focus on increasing data rates and improving power efficiency of optical links. Among all the link components, laser diodes typically consume the most power. Their power dissipation is dictated by the amount of signal power that needs to be transmitted to meet the bit error rate requirements under given channel loss and receiver sensitivity conditions. Consequently, improving receiver sensitivity directly helps lowering laser diode power consumption. In this paper, we present design techniques to implement such high sensitivity optical receivers. To this end, we identify noise–bandwidth tradeoffs of a shunt feedback transimpedance amplifier (SF-TIA) and elucidate how they limit the maximum achievable sensitivity at a given data rate and process technology. We then propose to combine a low-bandwidth SF-TIA with a four-tap decision feedback equalizer to overcome this noise–bandwidth tradeoff. The proposed SF-TIA uses high-gain multistage amplifier and large feedback resistance and achieves greatly improved noise performance. Fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS technology and heterogeneously integrated with a photonic IC, the proposed optical receiver achieves optical modulation amplitude sensitivity of −16.8 dBm with 1.9-pJ/bit efficiency at 12 Gb/s.
Auteurs: Mostafa Gamal Ahmed;Mrunmay Talegaonkar;Ahmed Elkholy;Guanghua Shu;Ahmed Elmallah;Alexander Rylyakov;Pavan Kumar Hanumolu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 445 - 457
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 13.56-MHz Wireless Power Transfer System With Enhanced Load-Transient Response and Efficiency by Fully Integrated Wireless Constant-Idle-Time Control for Biomedical Implants
Résumé:
In this paper, a complete wireless power transfer system with transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) chips is presented. Both RX local and TX wireless output voltage regulations are achieved by the proposed constant-idle-time control without using any wires or additional discrete components, such as MCU, DAC, various kinds of controllers, and decoders, which were required in previous works. The system and circuitry design complexity is significantly reduced. Both TX and RX chips are fabricated in the TSMC 65-nm process with standard 2.5-V I/O devices, and the RX coil is fabricated using flexible printed circuits to demonstrate the performance for implantable applications. Up to 17.5% end-to-end total efficiency improvement is observed when enabling the wireless constant-idle-time controlled TX voltage regulation, and an instant load-transient response is also achieved. As a result, compared to previous works, this design achieves a higher total efficiency, a faster load-transient response, and a higher level of integration with a much lower system and circuitry design complexity.
Auteurs: Cheng Huang;Toru Kawajiri;Hiroki Ishikuro;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 538 - 551
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 2-MHz Wide-Input Hybrid Resonant Converter With Ultracompact Planar Coupled Inductor for Low-Power Integrated On-Chip Applications
Résumé:
A trend for low-power conversion system is to integrate every component to a single chip. Magnetic component has been the key to determine the power density of the integrated switching power converter. In this paper, a hybrid resonant buck-type converter with an ultracompact custom-designed coupled inductor is presented for low-power integrated on-chip applications. This converter achieves zero-voltage switching for the high-side switch and near zero-voltage zero-current switching for low-side and auxiliary switches. The soft-switching condition allows the circuit operating at high switching frequencies. An ultracompact planar coupled inductor with a dimension of 5.25 mm × 1.95 mm × 3.86 mm is designed and customized for future integrated on-chip applications. The high-power density of this magnetics component is achieved by high switching frequency and optimized printed circuit board (PCB) windings design. A hardware prototype with 24 to 60-V input and 3.3 to 5-V, 3-A output operating at 2–3 MHz is presented to verify the circuit operation. The prototype achieves a peak efficiency of 90.7% using silicon devices at 2-MHz switching frequency.
Auteurs: Xiaonan Zhao;Chih-Shen Yeh;Lanhua Zhang;Jih-Sheng Lai;Thomas Labella;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 376 - 387
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 21.66 Gbps Nonbinary LDPC Decoder for High-Speed Communications
Résumé:
Compared to binary Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes, nonbinary LDPC (NB-LDPC) codes have better error correction performance under short-to-moderate block lengths or high-order modulations. Traditional min-sum-based soft decoding algorithms for NB-LDPC codes suffer from large computational complexity, which leads to inefficient hardware implementations. The Multiple-symbol-reliability weighted Bit-Reliability-Based (MwBRB) hard decoding algorithm achieves a good tradeoff between error correction performance and decoding complexity. However, efficient hardware implementations based on the MwBRB algorithm have not been investigated. In this brief, an improved layered MwBRB algorithm is first proposed, which results in faster convergence rate than the MwBRB algorithm. Then, an ultra-high-throughput low-complexity decoder architecture with an efficient partially parallel processing schedule is also presented. Finally, the proposed architecture is coded with RTL and synthesized under the TSMC 90-nm CMOS technology. The synthesis results demonstrate that the proposed decoder for a (837, 726) quasi-cyclic NB-LDPC code over GF(25) achieves a throughput of 21.66 Gbps and an area efficiency of 4.77 Gbps/M-gates under the TSMC 90-nm CMOS technology. The proposed decoder reaches a throughput more than 20 Gbps for the first time among the prior NB-LDPC decoders, and the area efficiency is far beyond the state-of-the-art designs.
Auteurs: Jing Tian;Jun Lin;Zhongfeng Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 226 - 230
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 219-to-231 GHz Frequency-Multiplier-Based VCO With ~3% Peak DC-to-RF Efficiency in 65-nm CMOS
Résumé:
Signal sources at mm-wave and (sub-)terahertz frequencies in CMOS can be classified into two broad categories: harmonic oscillators and oscillators that are based on the frequency multiplication of fundamental sources. This paper shows that frequency-multiplier-based sources potentially have a higher dc-to-RF efficiency than do the popular harmonic oscillators in 65-nm CMOS. To improve the power efficiency of CMOS signal sources that operate near or above the cutoff frequency of the device, design factors including the harmonic current efficiency, the effective output conductance, and the passive losses should be carefully tailored. An architecture is proposed in which: 1) the core voltage-controlled oscillator is optimized to efficiently generate a strong fundamental harmonic; 2) separate class-C frequency doublers are utilized to decouple fundamental signal generation and harmonic extraction and to reduce conductance loss; and 3) doubler circuits are separately optimized to simplify the output matching and power combining network, and hence avoid long and lossy transmission lines. A circuit prototype shows a measured peak output power and dc-to-RF efficiency of 3 dBm and 2.95%, respectively.
Auteurs: Amir Nikpaik;Amir Hossein Masnadi Shirazi;Abdolreza Nabavi;Shahriar Mirabbasi;Sudip Shekhar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 389 - 403
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 290-mV, 3.34-MHz, 6T SRAM With pMOS Access Transistors and Boosted Wordline in 65-nm CMOS Technology
Résumé:
This paper presents a six-transistor bitcell SRAM with pMOS access transistor. Utilizing pMOS access transistor results in lower zero-level degradation (ZLD) and, hence, higher read stability. In addition, the access transistor connected to the internal node holding $V_{text {DD}}$ acts as a stabilizer and counter balances the effect of ZLD. In order to improve the writability, wordline (WL) boosting is exploited. WL boosting also helps to compensate the lower speed of the pMOS access transistor compared with nMOS transistor. To verify our design, a 2-kb SRAM is fabricated in the TSMC 65-nm CMOS technology. Measurement results show that the maximum operational frequency of the test chip is at 3.34 MHz at 290 mV. The minimum energy consumption is measured as 1.1 fJ/bit at 400 mV.
Auteurs: Morteza Nabavi;Manoj Sachdev;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 656 - 667
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 3-D Dispersive Time-Domain Meshless Formulation for Frequency-Dependent Materials
Résumé:
This communication presents a novel transient meshless formulation for analyzing wave propagation through linear dispersive materials. Many real materials are linear dispersive; thus, their constitutive parameters are not constant and change with frequency. However, the conventional numerical techniques are not proper tools for numerical analysis of dispersive materials, considering that they are formulated based on the assuming constant constitutive parameters for the materials. Therefore, until now, a number of numerical techniques have been proposed for modeling frequency behavior of dispersive materials. On the other hand, meshless methods are new and powerful numerical techniques which their capability in simulating the problem domain without using connection information among nodes makes them efficient techniques for modeling problems with complex geometries. In this communication, we have demonstrated that by incorporating some approaches into the meshless methods, we can turn them into suitable tools for modeling dispersive media. In order to obtain a meshless analysis of a dispersive medium, we have considered the scalar radial basis function meshless method, and for taking the frequency behavior of the medium into account, the auxiliary differential equations method has been used. Hence, the proposed dispersive meshless method not only models the frequency behavior of the dispersive materials but also provides more flexibility in simulating problems with complex geometries. In addition, the efficiency and accuracy of our proposed method are investigated by two numerical examples.
Auteurs: Sheyda Shams;Ali Ghafoorzadeh-Yazdi;Masoud Movahhedi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1040 - 1045
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 3D-printable instrument to improve force vector measurement in CPR training
Résumé:
In this article, we extend our previous instrument [1], which helps trainees improve the precision of their compressions during Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), by adding to it a 3D-printed component (http://acima.lncc. br/i&m) that further improves the precision of force angle measurements. Our instrument measures the force vector and frequency of CPR compressions performed by the trainee. CPR is a technique that allows a certified person to try to keep alive someone whose heartbeat and/or breathing has stopped. Through compressions applied to the thorax of the individual in need of help, one can maintain the blood flow and air intake until further help (and equipment) arrives. During CPR training, our 3D-prototype methodically attaches a standard CPR manikin to a Nintendo WiiTM Balance Board, enabling adequate balance of the instrument, and thus, obtaining more precise data out of the compressions performed. Results of our empirical evaluations show that with the 3D prototype, the measured parameters of force value, force direction and frequency have a standard uncertainty of 0.91 KgF, 0.25 Rad (14.35 degrees), and 0.15 Hz, respectively, while without our 3D prototype they have a standard uncertainty of 0.72 KgF, 0.44 Rad (25.25 degrees) and 0.12 Hz, respectively. Results prove that our 3D prototype contributes to increasing the precision of force angle measurement, since it holds the manikin firmly in place, while having negligible effect in force amount and frequency measurements.
Auteurs: Greis F.M. Silva-Calpa;Carina C. Teixeira;Felipe C. Marx;Jauvane C. De Oliveira;Shervin Shirmohammadi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 25 - 33
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 45$^circ$ Linearly Polarized Slot Array Antenna With Substrate Integrated Coaxial Line Technique
Résumé:
The growing interest in collision avoidance automotive radar systems in Ka-band necessitates the development of dedicated antenna systems with a 45$^circ$ inclined linear polarization (LP). In this letter, a 45$^circ$ inclined LP slot array antenna with the substrate integrated coaxial line (SICL) technique is presented. The proposed antenna is composed of an amplitude-tapering corporate-feed structure and a 5  $times$ 6 inclined-slot array that radiates the 45$^circ$ linear polarization. In addition, a blind via bridging the inner conductor and the ground of the SICL is adopted beneath each radiating slot for impedance matching. The proposed planar slot array antenna occupies an aperture area of 33.24 mm $ times$ 41.13 mm. Measured results indicate that the holistic sidelobe levels in $boldsymbol{xoz}$ plane and $boldsymbol{yoz}$ plane are $-$19.6 and $-$18.0 dB, and the corresponding cross-polarization levels are $-$29.5 and $-$26.8 dB, respectively. A measured peak gain of 17.09 dBi is observed at 34.5 GHz with a $-$ 10 dB impedance bandwidth of 910 MHz. The measured results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations and have demonstrated the validity of the design methodology for the proposed antenna.
Auteurs: Bing Liu;Renrong Zhao;Yu Ma;Zijun Guo;Xiangyun Wei;Wenqiang Xing;Yuting Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 339 - 342
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 450 fs 65-nm CMOS Millimeter-Wave Time-to-Digital Converter Using Statistical Element Selection for All-Digital PLLs
Résumé:
This paper presents a time-to-digital converter (TDC) that operates with a 20–64 GHz input and underpins the phase digitization function in a millimeter-wave all-digital fractional-N frequency synthesizer. A self-calibrated inductor-less frequency divider using dynamic CML latches provides an eight-phase input to a 3-bit “coarse” TDC, which is interfaced to a 5-bit “fine” TDC through a sub-sampling coarse-fine interface circuit. A wide bandwidth low dropout (LDO) on-chip regulator is used to decrease the effect of supply noise on TDC performance. A synthesized digital engine implements calibration using statistical element selection with mean adaptation to alleviate TDC nonlinearity that results from random mismatches and PVT variations. The TDC is fabricated in 65-nm CMOS along with the divider and calibration circuits, and achieves 450-fs resolution. The measured DNL and INL of the TDC are 0.65 and 1.2 LSB, respectively. The TDC consumes 11 mA from 1-V supply voltage. The TDC features a figure-of-merit of 0.167 (0.47) pJ per conversion step without (with) the frequency divider. A single-shot experiment shows that the on-chip LDO reduces the effect of TDC noise by reducing the standard deviation from 0.856 to 0.167 LSB for constant input. The prototype occupies an active area of $502times 110~mu text{m}^{mathbf {2}}$ excluding pads.
Auteurs: Ahmed I. Hussein;Sriharsha Vasadi;Jeyanandh Paramesh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 357 - 374
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 5-mW 750-kb/s Noninvasive Transceiver for Around-the-Head Audio Applications
Résumé:
This brief presents a noninvasive energy-efficient frequency-modulated ultra-wideband (FM-UWB) transceiver. 8-frequency-shift-keying (FSK) subcarrier modulation is utilized to enhance the data rate with a slight increment of hardware complexity compared to the conventional 2-FSK FM-UWB system. The transmitter employs a fast settling PLL with a pretuned relaxation VCO for 8-FSK subcarrier modulation. The transmitted signal by an FLL-assisted ring VCO followed by a single-stage class AB power amplifier meets the FCC spectrum mask. The regenerative receiver employs a wideband LNA with a stacked structure to save power. Two 4th-order Butterworth bandpass filters and envelope detectors convert the FM signal to an AM signal with good linearity. The 3.5–4 GHz 750-kb/s transceiver implemented in 65-nm CMOS consumes 5 mW from a 1-V supply, achieving an energy efficiency of 6.7 nJ/bit.
Auteurs: Fei Chen;Woogeun Rhee;Zhihua Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 196 - 200
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 588-Gb/s LDPC Decoder Based on Finite-Alphabet Message Passing
Résumé:
An ultrahigh throughput low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoder with an unrolled full-parallel architecture is proposed, which achieves the highest decoding throughput compared to previously reported LDPC decoders in the literature. The decoder benefits from a serial message-transfer approach between the decoding stages to alleviate the well-known routing congestion problem in parallel LDPC decoders. Furthermore, a finite-alphabet message passing algorithm is employed to replace the VN update rule of the standard min-sum (MS) decoder with lookup tables, which are designed in a way that maximizes the mutual information between decoding messages. The proposed algorithm results in an architecture with reduced bit-width messages, leading to a significantly higher decoding throughput and to a lower area compared to an MS decoder when serial message transfer is used. The architecture is placed and routed for the standard MS reference decoder and for the proposed finite-alphabet decoder using a custom pseudo-hierarchical backend design strategy to further alleviate routing congestions and to handle the large design. Postlayout results show that the finite-alphabet decoder with the serial message-transfer architecture achieves a throughput as large as 588 Gb/s with an area of 16.2 mm2 and dissipates an average power of 22.7 pJ per decoded bit in a 28-nm fully depleted silicon on isulator library. Compared to the reference MS decoder, this corresponds to 3.1 times smaller area and 2 times better energy efficiency.
Auteurs: Reza Ghanaatian;Alexios Balatsoukas-Stimming;Thomas Christoph Müller;Michael Meidlinger;Gerald Matz;Adam Teman;Andreas Burg;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 329 - 340
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 5G Wideband Patch Antenna With Antisymmetric L-shaped Probe Feeds
Résumé:
A dual-polarized patch antenna element fed by a pair of antisymmetric L-shaped probes is proposed. The designed twin L-shaped probe feeding structure is able to introduce feed capacitance to the antenna for broadband operation. The lengths of the two L-shaped probe feeds are identical, but the feeds are antisymmetric. This feeding design can minimize the unwanted radiation from the probe effectively. The dual-polarized antenna can be operated in the frequency band 1580–2750 MHz, which covers the current mobile communication systems, 3G and 4G and higher band frequencies. A prototype with dual slanted ±45° polarization has been fabricated for validation. Both the simulation and measured results show that the proposed antenna has wide bandwidth of 54% (SWR < 2) with desirable directional radiation patterns in the vertical and horizontal planes, as well as high isolation better than −30 dB between the two input ports.
Auteurs: Ka Ming Mak;Hua Wah Lai;Kwai Man Luk;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 957 - 961
Editeur: IEEE
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» A 77-dB Dynamic Range Low-Power Variable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifier for Linear LADAR
Résumé:
An adjustable-gain transimpedance amplifier with a wide linear dynamic range, low power consumption, and low input impedance was designed for a pulsed linear laser detection and ranging system. To extend the linear dynamic range within a low power consumption, some specific techniques are presented. A low-power current-mirror amplifier with a level shifter was used to decrease the input impedance and keep it stable. Adjustable transimpedance gain extends the input dynamic range, and a high-pass filter eliminates the influence of dc operating point drift caused by the variable gain. When implemented in 0.18- ${mu }text{m}$ standard CMOS technology, the receiver achieved a high gain of 106 dB with four configurable gain modes, a wide linear output swing of 1 V, an input-referred noise current of $1.52~ {rm p{A}/ sqrt {Hz}}$ , and a minimum detectable signal of 400 nA at SNR = 5, leading to a linear dynamic range of 77 dB, and the power consumption in the highest gain mode was 8 mW with a 3.3-V supply.
Auteurs: Rui Ma;Maliang Liu;Hao Zheng;Zhangming Zhu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 171 - 175
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Bilevel Model With a Solution Algorithm for Locating Weigh-In-Motion Stations
Résumé:
The proper location of weigh-in-motion (WIM) stations in road networks is critical to effectively reduce the impact of overweight trucks. Truckers may quickly learn the locations of WIM stations, and take detours to bypass these checkpoints, with the aid of advanced navigation systems. This reaction needs to be considered in the location models for the deployment of WIM systems. This paper proposes a bilevel model to deal with the WIM location problem in a road network. The model includes an upper level and multiple lower level models respectively, represent the decision-making behavior of the law enforcement officials and truckers for different origin-destination pairs. The upper level model determines the optimal number and locations of WIM stations so as to minimize the damage due to evasive overweight trucks, considering the truckers’ route choices. The lower level models simulate the truckers’ route choices in response to the WIM locations determined by the upper level model. A heuristic is developed to efficiently solve the bilevel model, as it is difficult to obtain the exact solution. The proposed model and heuristic are evaluated using a test instance generated based on the Nevada road network. The results show that the heuristic outperforms a classical approach based on k shortest paths.
Auteurs: Chung-Cheng Lu;Shangyao Yan;Hao-Chih Ko;Hui-Ju Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 380 - 389
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Blocker-Tolerant RF Front End With Harmonic-Rejecting $N$ -Path Filter
Résumé:
An RF front end with a harmonic-rejecting $N$ -path filter is presented. It features tunable narrow-band filtering and high attenuation at the third- and fifth-order local oscillator (LO) harmonics at the LNA output, which improves the blocker tolerance at LO harmonics. The 0.2–1 GHz RF front end is implemented in a 65-nm CMOS process. The blocker 1-dB compression point (B1dB) is −2.4 dBm at a 20-MHz offset, and remains high at the third- and fifth-order LO harmonics. The reverse isolation of the LNA helps keep the LO emission below −90 dBm. A two-stage harmonic rejection approach offers a >51 dB harmonic-rejection ratio at the third- and fifth-order LO harmonics without calibration.
Auteurs: Yang Xu;Jianxun Zhu;Peter R. Kinget;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 327 - 339
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Broadband Distributed Vibration Sensing System Assisted by a Distributed Feedback Interferometer
Résumé:
A distributed vibration-sensing system based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (Φ-OTDR) and distributed feedback interferometer (DFI) with broadband frequency response and high spatial resolution has been proposed and demonstrated. A couple of narrow line-width lasers with different wavelengths were used to form the light source, which were consistent with two channels of dense wavelength division multiplexer. Both functions of Φ-OTDR and DFI could work synchronously without influence between each other. The characteristic of broadband frequency disturbance event could be fully captured and identified by the DFI, while the corresponding location could be determined by the Φ-OTDR scheme. Unlike ordinary interferometer, the proposed DFI scheme could make single-end monitoring without the installation of extra accessories. Furthermore, broadband frequency response range and precise locating of the disturbance event could be achieved at the same time. Experimental results have shown that spatial resolution of 10 m and frequency response up to 1 MHz have been obtained over 2.16-km-sensing fiber, which have proved the validity of the proposed method.
Auteurs: Yuanyuan Shan;Jiayun Dong;Jie Zeng;Siyi Fu;Yinsen Cai;Yixin Zhang;Xuping Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Calderón Preconditioner for High Dielectric Contrast Media
Résumé:
A Calderón preconditioned single-source equation to model the scattering at homogeneous high dielectric contrast media is presented. It is shown that the proposed interaction matrix remains well-conditioned when scattering at media with high permittivity, including arbitrary losses, is considered. The discretization scheme involves Rao–Wilton–Glisson and Buffa–Christiansen basis functions, which are compatible with existing commercial method of moments software. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed solution scheme is confirmed by numerical examples.
Auteurs: Michiel Gossye;Martijn Huynen;Dries Vande Ginste;Daniël De Zutter;Hendrik Rogier;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 808 - 818
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Call to Action [President's Message]
Résumé:
Auteurs: Weng Cho Chew;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 6 - 6
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Carrier-Storage-Enhanced Superjunction IGBT With Ultralow Loss and On-State Voltage
Résumé:
A carrier-storage-enhanced superjunction (SJ) insulated gate bipolar transistor (CSE-SJ-IGBT) is proposed and investigated. In the CSE-SJ-IGBT, the p-pillar is connected to the Emitter via one diode or two series diodes, which helps to raise the hole quasi-Fermi potential of the p-pillar at the on-state so as to enhance the carrier-storage effect in the drift region (n-pillar and p-pillar) and reduce the on-state voltage ( ${V} _{textbf {CE(sat)}}$ ). Moreover, the CSE-SJ-IGBT also can turn off rapidly as the conventional SJ-IGBT. Simulation results show that, under turn-off loss ( $text{E}_{off}$ ) of 5 mJ/cm2, ${V} _{textbf {CE(sat)}}$ of the 1.45-kV rated CSE-SJ-IGBT is as low as 1.07 V, which is 35% and 40% lower than that of the conventional SJ-IGBT and the field stop IGBT, respectively. Besides, the CSE-SJ-IGBT also offers large design freedom for obtaining excellent $text{E}_{off}$ - ${V} _{textbf {CE(sat)}}$ tradeoff.
Auteurs: Mingmin Huang;Bo Gao;Zhimei Yang;Li Lai;Min Gong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 264 - 267
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Case Study of Voltage Transformer Failures: Solution Implementation in a Modern Data Center
Résumé:
While preparing a modern data center for startup, the commissioning process involved primary circuit switching that resulted in two voltage transformer (VT) failures. As a result, we conducted a comprehensive investigation of the VT failures. As the investigation proceeded, VT ferroresonance on circuit opening and high-frequency switching transients on closing emerged as possible root causes of the failures. After incorporating extensive transient simulations and three rounds of field transient measurements, we designed and implemented a complete solution that included the sizing of snubbers to overcome excessive switching transients and the development of a saturable reactor to protect VTs against the effects of ferroresonance. This article describes the root causes, simulations, field measurements, recommended solutions, and solution implementation for this event. The correlation between field measurements and simulation results shows the effectiveness of modeling the implemented solutions.
Auteurs: Tamer Abdelazim Mellik;Thomas J. Dionise;Robert Yanniello;
Apparue dans: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 98 - 109
Editeur: IEEE
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» A CFCC-LSTM Model for Sea Surface Temperature Prediction
Résumé:
Sea surface temperature (SST) prediction is not only theoretically important but also has a number of practical applications across a variety of ocean-related fields. Although a large amount of SST data obtained via remote sensor are available, previous work rarely attempted to predict future SST values from history data in spatiotemporal perspective. This letter regards SST prediction as a sequence prediction problem and builds an end-to-end trainable long short term memory (LSTM) neural network model. LSTM naturally has the ability to learn the temporal relationship of time series data. Besides temporal information, spatial information is also included in our LSTM model. The local correlation and global coherence of each pixel can be expressed and retained by patches with fixed dimensions. The proposed model essentially combines the temporal and spatial information to predict future SST values. Its structure includes one fully connected LSTM layer and one convolution layer. Experimental results on two data sets, i.e., one Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer SST data set covering China Coastal waters and one National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration High-Resolution SST data set covering the Bohai Sea, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Auteurs: Yuting Yang;Junyu Dong;Xin Sun;Estanislau Lima;Quanquan Mu;Xinhua Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 207 - 211
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Characterization of Integral ISS for Switched and Time-Varying Systems
Résumé:
Most of the existing characterizations of the integral input-to-state stability (iISS) property are not valid for time-varying or switched systems in cases where converse Lyapunov theorems for stability are not available. This paper provides a characterization that is valid for switched and time-varying systems, and shows that natural extensions of some of the existing characterizations result in only sufficient but not necessary conditions. The results provided also pinpoint suitable iISS gains and relate these to supply functions and bounds on the function defining the system dynamics.
Auteurs: H. Haimovich;J. L. Mancilla-Aguilar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 578 - 585
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Clustering Approach for the Detection of Acoustic/Seismic Signals of Unknown Structure
Résumé:
We focus on the detection of sporadic low-power acoustic/seismic signals of unknown structure and statistics, such as the detection of sound produced by marine mammals, low-power underground signals, or the discovery of events such as volcano eruptions. In these cases, since the ambient noise may be fast time varying and may include many noise transients, threshold-based detection may lead to a significant false alarm rate. Instead, we propose a detection scheme that avoids the use of a decision threshold. Our method is based on clustering the samples of the observed buffer according to a binary hidden Markov model to discriminate between “noise” and “signal” states. Our detector is a modification of the Baum–Welch algorithm that takes into account the expected continuity of the desired signal and obtains a robust detection using the complex but flexible general Gaussian mixture model. The result is a combination of a constrained expectation-maximization algorithm with the Viterbi algorithm. We evaluate the performance of our scheme in numerical simulations, in a seimic test, and in an ocean experiment. The results are close to the hybrid Cramér–Rao lower bound and show that, at the cost of some additional complexity, our proposed algorithm outperforms common benchmark methods in terms of detection and false alarm rates, and also achieves a better accuracy of the time of detection. To allow reproducibility of the results, we publish our code.
Auteurs: Roee Diamant;Dror Kipnis;Michele Zorzi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1017 - 1029
Editeur: IEEE
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» A CMOS Wideband Current-Mode Digital Polar Power Amplifier With Built-In AM–PM Distortion Self-Compensation
Résumé:
This paper presents a fully integrated wideband current-mode digital polar power amplifier (DPA) in CMOS with built-in AM–PM distortion self-compensation. Feedforward capacitors are implemented in each differential cascode digital power cell. These feedforward capacitors operate together with a proposed DPA biasing scheme to minimize the DPA output device capacitance $C_{d}$ variations over a wide output power range and a wide carrier frequency bandwidth, resulting in DPA AM–PM distortion reduction. A three-coil transformer-based DPA output passive network is implemented within a single transformer footprint (330 $mu text{m} ,, times $ 330 $mu text{m}$ ) and provides parallel power combining and load impedance transformation with a low loss, an octave bandwidth, and a large impedance transformation ratio. Moreover, this proposed power amplifier (PA) output passive network shows a desensitized phase response to $C_{d}$ variations and further suppresses the DPA AM–PM distortion. Both proposed AM–PM distortion self-compensation techniques are effective for a large carrier frequency range and a wide modulation bandwidth, and are independent of the DPA AM control codes. This results in a superior inherent DPA phase linearity and reduces or even eliminates the need for phase pre-distortion, which dramatically simplifies the DPA pre-distortion computations. As a proof-of-concept, a 2–4.3 GHz wideband DPA is implemented in a standard 28-nm bulk CMOS process. Operating with a low supply voltage of 1.4 V for enhanced reliability, the DPA demonstrates ±0.5 dB PA output po- er bandwidth from 2 to 4.3 GHz with +24.9 dBm peak output power at 3.1 GHz. The measured peak PA drain efficiency is 42.7% at 2.5 GHz and is more than 27% from 2 to 4.3 GHz. The measured PA AM–PM distortion is within 6.8° at 2.8 GHz over the PA output power dynamic range of 25 dB, achieving the lowest AM–PM distortion among recently reported current-mode DPAs in the same frequency range. Without any phase pre-distortion, modulation measurements with a 20-MHz 802.11n standard compliant signal demonstrate 2.95% rms error vector magnitude, −33.5 dBc adjacent channel leakage ratio, 15.6% PA drain efficiency, and +14.6 dBm PA average output power at 2.8 GHz.
Auteurs: Jong Seok Park;Yanjie Wang;Stefano Pellerano;Christopher Hull;Hua Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 340 - 356
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact Broadband Cross-Shaped Circularly Polarized Planar Monopole Antenna With a Ground Plane Extension
Résumé:
This letter presents a new broadband circularly polarized (CP) planar monopole antenna with a simple structure and compact size. Broadband CP operation is achieved by vertically extending one side of the ground plane, while a cross-shaped monopole structure and the presence of a slot in the ground plane assure a broad impedance bandwidth. The antenna is successfully simulated, and a prototype is fabricated. Measurement results indicate that the 3 dB axial-ratio bandwidth is about 42.6% (2.6 GHz, 4.8–7.4 GHz), fully covered by a –10 dB impedance bandwidth of 55.5% (3.35 GHz, 4.36–7.71 GHz). Furthermore, the proposed antenna can be used together with a metallic reflector to obtain directive radiation patterns with enhanced broadside gain.
Auteurs: Kwame Oteng Gyasi;Guangjun Wen;Daniele Inserra;Yongjun Huang;Jian Li;Affum Emmanuel Ampoma;Haobin Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 335 - 338
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact Ka-Band Monopulse Cassegrain Antenna Based on Reflectarray Elements
Résumé:
A compact Ka-band monopulse Cassegrain antenna based on the reflectarray elements is presented in this letter. The proposed antenna consists of a main-reflectarray, a subreflectarray, a substrate integrated waveguide comparator, and a monopulse feed to achieve good sum–difference characteristics. Compared with traditional monopulse Cassegrain antenna, the total length of the proposed antenna is shrunken to 67.85%. The results of measurement agree with that of simulation very well. The measured SUM beam gain of the proposed antenna is 29.4 dBi by eliminating the loss of Ka-band comparator, the 3 dB beamwidth is 3.85°, the first sidelobe level is under −12 dB, the cross-polarization level is better than −20 dB, and the gain ratios between the SUM and DIFF are about 3 and 5 dB in azimuth and elevation plane, respectively. The measured results show that the proposed antenna is a good candidate for the low-cost multimode tracking system with limited space, especially for that working at high frequency.
Auteurs: Jianing Zhao;Hao Li;Xiaoguang Yang;Wei Mao;Biao Hu;Tianming Li;Haiyang Wang;Yihong Zhou;Qiao Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 193 - 196
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact Physics-Based Surface Potential and Drain Current Model for an S/D Spacer-Based DG-RFET
Résumé:
In this paper, we have developed a physics-based compact model for surface potential and drain current for a dual gate source/drain (S/D) spacer-based silicon nanowire reconfigurable field-effect transistor (RFET). The models are derived by dividing the active region of the device into several portions based on positioning of the gates, spacers, and the metal-silicide Schottky junctions. A charge density expression is first developed and the quasi-fermi potentials for both electron and hole transport are found out by applying the principle of current continuity. Using these and further solving the 2-D Poisson’s equation self consistently for various subregions of the device, the drain current and surface potential are modeled subsequently. The model includes the effects of drain voltage, nanowire radius, temperature and Schottky barrier height. The accuracy of the derived results is tested using 3-D numerical technology computer aided design simulations. The proposed model can be used to study the behavior of ambipolar FETs having S/D spacers for varying device dimensions and also can be utilized for the future design of memory devices and circuits using spacer-based RFETS.
Auteurs: Abhishek Bhattacharjee;Sudeb Dasgupta;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 448 - 455
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact Reconfigurable NRI-TL Metamaterial Phase Shifter for Antenna Applications
Résumé:
This communication presents a compact reconfigurable phase shifter based on negative-refractive-index transmission-line (NRI-TL) metamaterial unit cells. Two interswitchable NRI-TL metamaterial unit cells are collocated within the same board area, and can be reconfigured based on the biasing polarity of embedded p-i-n diodes to provide two discrete phase states. The p-i-n diodes are located on the shunt branches of the metamaterial line in order to reduce losses in the direct signal path. Design limitations in terms of return loss and insertion loss are discussed in relation to the two phase states. A proof-of-concept module with a size of $17.8 times 21.6~ text {mm}^{2}$ is designed at 1 GHz, with measured insertion phases of −14.5° and +58.5° in the two phase states leading to a differential phase shift of 73°, while exhibiting insertion losses of 1.43 and 0.89 dB, respectively. The combined bandwidth for which the reflection coefficient in both states remains simultaneously below −10 dB is 0.46 GHz (46%), from 0.83 to 1.29 GHz.
Auteurs: Muhammad Ali Babar Abbasi;Marco A. Antoniades;Symeon Nikolaou;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1025 - 1030
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Compact Single-Stage Wide-Band Balun: A 4:1 Wide-Band Transmission-Line Balun Based on a Combination of Two Different Ferrite Cores
Résumé:
This article presents the design procedure and measurement results for a 4:1 wide-band transmission-line balun based on a combination of two different ferrite cores. The balun ranked first at the Student Design Competition for "Wide-Band Baluns" that took place during the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) 2017 International Microwave Symposium (IMS2017) in Honolulu, Hawaii, last May and sponsored by Technical Coordinating Committee MTT-17. Each competition team was required to bring a balun designed by the students. The team that achieved the widest measured bandwidth, from 300 kHz to 1 GHz under the competition rules, was named the winner.
Auteurs: Taewan Kim;Hwiseob Lee;Wonseob Lim;Sungjae Oh;Hansik Oh;Keum Cheol Hwang;Kang-Yoon Lee;Cheon-seok Park;Youngoo Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 78 - 83
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Comparative Study of Input–Output Stability Results
Résumé:
At present, many similar but disparate input–output (I–O) stability criteria exist. Without means for comparison, it is unclear which result is best used in any given application. This paper proposes a means for comparison between I–O stability results involving norms and inner products of inputs and outputs. The extended conic sector theorem provides a framework for determining which results are least conservative and most broadly applicable. In so-doing, numerous existing stability results are unified and revealed as more powerful than previously thought.
Auteurs: Leila Jasmine Bridgeman;James Richard Forbes;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 463 - 476
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Comparative Study on Fluorination and Oxidation of Indium–Gallium–Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors
Résumé:
Both fluorination and oxidation have been employed to passivate defects in indium-gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors, leading to enhanced device attributes. It is presently reported that the former is more effective than the latter, requiring shorter process time (hence improved manufacturing efficiency), resulting in reduced initial defect population (hence enhanced scalability), and more robust resistance against process- and stress-induced defect generation (hence improved reliability). It is determined that the fluorine drive-in heat treatment is best conducted in an oxidizing atmosphere.
Auteurs: Lei Lu;Zhihe Xia;Jiapeng Li;Zhuoqun Feng;Sisi Wang;Hoi Sing Kwok;Man Wong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 196 - 199
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Computational Geometry Framework for Efficient Network Localization
Résumé:
Network localization is an emerging paradigm for providing high-accuracy positional information in GPS-challenged environments. To enable efficient network localization, we propose node prioritization strategies for allocating transmission resources among network nodes. This paper develops a computational geometry framework for determining the optimal node prioritization strategy. The framework consists of transforming each node prioritization strategy into a point in a Euclidian space and exploiting geometric properties of these points. Under this framework, we prove the sparsity property of the optimal node prioritization vector (NPV) and reduce the search space of the optimal NPV. Our approach yields exact optimal solutions rather than $epsilon $ -approximate solutions for efficient network localization. Numerical results show that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the computational complexity of prioritization strategies and improve the accuracy of network localization.
Auteurs: Wenhan Dai;Yuan Shen;Moe Z. Win;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1317 - 1339
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Computationally Efficient Framework for Automatic Inertial Sensor Calibration
Résumé:
The calibration of (low-cost) inertial sensors has become increasingly important over the past years, since their use has grown exponentially in many applications going from unmanned aerial vehicle navigation to 3-D animation. However, this calibration procedure is often quite problematic since, aside from compensating for deterministic measurement errors due to physical phenomena such as dynamics or temperature, the stochastic signals issued from these sensors in static settings have a complex spectral structure and the methods available to estimate the parameters of these models are either unstable, computationally intensive, and/or statistically inconsistent. This paper presents a new software platform for calibration of the stochastic component in inertial sensor measurement errors based on the generalized method of wavelet moments, which provides a computationally efficient, flexible, user-friendly, and statistically sound tool to estimate and select from a wide range of complex models. In addition, all this is possible also in a robust framework allowing to perform sensor calibration when the data are affected by outliers. The software is developed within the open-source statistical software R and is based on C++ language allowing it to achieve high computational performance.
Auteurs: James Joseph Balamuta;Roberto Molinari;Stéphane Guerrier;Wenchao Yang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1636 - 1646
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Constrained Coding Scheme for Correcting Asymmetric Magnitude-1 Errors in $q$ -Ary Channels
Résumé:
We present a constraint-coding scheme to correct asymmetric magnitude-1 errors in multi-level non-volatile memories. For large numbers of such errors, the scheme is shown to deliver better correction capability compared with known alternatives, while admitting low-complexity of decoding. Our results include an algebraic formulation of the constraint, necessary and sufficient conditions for correctability, a maximum-likelihood decoder running in complexity linear in the alphabet size, and upper bounds on the probability of failing to correct $t$ errors. Besides the superior rate-correction tradeoff, another advantage of this scheme over standard error-correcting codes is the flexibility to vary the code parameters without significant modifications.
Auteurs: Evyatar Hemo;Yuval Cassuto;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 918 - 932
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Construction of Multiple Optimal ZCZ Sequence Sets With Good Cross Correlation
Résumé:
Zero correlation zone (ZCZ) sequences are a class of spreading sequences having ideal auto-correlation and cross correlation in a zone around the origin. They have been extensively studied in recent years due to their important applications in quasi-synchronous code division multiple access systems. In this paper, a construction of ZCZ sequence sets is proposed based on perfect nonlinear functions. It generates multiple ZCZ sequence sets with the properties: 1) each sequence is perfect in the sense that its out-of-phase auto-correlation is always zero; 2) each ZCZ sequence set is optimal with respect to the Tang–Fan–Matsufuji bound in which all the sequences are pairwise cyclically distinct; and 3) the maximum inter-set cross correlation of multiple sequence sets achieves the well-known Sarwate bound.
Auteurs: Zhengchun Zhou;Dan Zhang;Tor Helleseth;Jinming Wen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1340 - 1346
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Continuous-Time Digital IIR Filter With Signal-Derived Timing and Fully Agile Power Consumption
Résumé:
Presented is the first continuous-time (CT) digital infinite impulse response (IIR) filter working on signal-derived timing in lieu of a clock. We introduce a novel design method which enables the design of high-order IIR filters using only two tap delays. An event-grouping technique is also introduced to prevent parasitic oscillations in the presence of tap delay mismatches. The 1.2-V, 65-nm CMOS prototype implements a sixth-order IIR filter, with a maximum input rate of 20 Msample/s and a stop-band rejection of more than 80 dB. Without using any power-down circuitry, the chip’s power consumption tracks the input activity in a fully agile manner, and varies by more than $50times $ , from 0.04 to 2.32 mW. The filter achieves an figure of merit (FoM) which competes with that of discrete-time (DT) filters, while avoiding the use of a clock and an antialiasing filter. Compared to prior art in CT digital signal processings, the prototype achieves 45-dB improvement in stop-band rejection and 9 $times $ smaller delay line area. For the first time, the filtered CT digital signal is converted to synchronous mode at the end of signal chain, allowing integration with DT digital systems.
Auteurs: Yu Chen;Xiaoyang Zhang;Yong Lian;Rajit Manohar;Yannis Tsividis;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 418 - 430
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Controller for Guiding Leg Movement During Overground Walking With a Lower Limb Exoskeleton
Résumé:
This paper describes a lower limb exoskeleton control approach that facilitates a desired movement coordination between the hip and knee joints during the swing phase of gait. An important feature of the proposed controller is that it provides movement guidance while allowing a user to control step time and step length. Specifically, control of step time is enabled by the use of time-invariant movement constraints, while control of step length is enabled by a real-time path-planning feature. As such, the controller provides movement coordination, but still enables a user to retain the step-to-step variability required to maintain balance during walking. The controller was implemented on a lower limb exoskeleton and tested on five healthy subjects. The subjects walked overground in the exoskeleton without a stability aid under two conditions: with the proposed coordination controller (i.e., with sagittal plane movement constraints) and with no control implemented (i.e., without sagittal plane movement constraints). Data from these assessments indicate that the controller provided substantial movement coordination while still allowing subjects substantive control of step time and length across a range of walking speeds.
Auteurs: Andrés Martínez;Brian Lawson;Michael Goldfarb;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 183 - 193
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Cost-Efficient Cloud Gaming System at Scale
Résumé:
This article proposes a transparent gaming (TG) cloud system that allows users to play any popular high-end desktop game on the fly over the Internet. Toward this goal, we have introduced the TG-SHARE technology to share the underlying hardware capabilities, particularly for the GPU and the dedicated compression acceleration unit (XCODER). TG-SHARE utilizes offthe- shelf consumer GPUs without resorting to expensive proprietary GPU virtualization technology (e.g., GRID from NVIDIA). XCODER adapts the compression based on the network dynamics, learned gaming behaviors, and hardware resources to significantly reduce bandwidth consumption. Google's webRTC protocol is integrated to offer real-time interaction and ubiquitous access from heterogeneous devices. Compared to the existing cloud gaming vendor using the GRID technology, our TG-SHARE not only reduces the expense per user (i.e., 75 percent hardware cost reduction, 20-40 percent network cost reduction), but also improves the quality of experience with higher rate of frames per second (i.e., 2 x FPS).
Auteurs: Yiling Xu;Qiu Shen;Xin Li;Zhan Ma;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 42 - 47
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Data Driven Cycle Time Prediction With Feature Selection in a Semiconductor Wafer Fabrication System
Résumé:
Accurate prediction of cycle time (CT) plays an important role in the promises of a good delivery-time for semiconductor manufacturers. However, the CTs of wafer lots are difficult to forecast since they are influent by a lot factors (e.g., workload for every machine). The identification of key factors (called CT-related) can not only improve the prediction performance but also facilitate the control of CT, which is of particular significance. This paper focuses on gathering subtle variables into the candidate variables set along with the further analysis which is required in the correlation analysis between various candidate factors and CTs of wafer lots. The candidates set is first constructed to collect all factors that may affect wafer lots’ CT. Then, a regression-based model is proposed to select CT-related variables, which consists of three parts: 1) discretization; 2) adaptive logistic regression-based correlation analysis; and 3) CT-related factor selection. Subsequently, a parallel computation model is implemented to forecast the CTs of wafer lots. In the numerical experiments, 108 CT-related factors stood out from 774 candidates and replaced six global factors (used as reference) to predict CTs of wafer lots. The results indicated that the proposed approach had higher accuracy than linear regression and back propagation network in CT forecasting in large scale data analysis.
Auteurs: Junliang Wang;Jie Zhang;Xiaoxi Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 173 - 182
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Data-Driven Approach for Driving Safety Risk Prediction Using Driver Behavior and Roadway Information Data
Résumé:
Future roadways will have a mix of autonomous and automated vehicles with regular vehicles that require human operators. To ensure the safety of all the road users in such a network, it is necessary to enhance the performance of the present Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) for lower classes of vehicles. Real-time driving safety risk prediction is an essential element of an ADAS. In this paper, we propose a novel data-driven approach to predict traffic safety risk that can be customized for individual drivers by including driver-specific variables. In particular, we have used the elastic net regularized multinomial logistic regression and data from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving study to build the predictive models. This paper rigorously examines the variables in the data set and performs data preparation and feature engineering steps to enhance the prediction performance with respect to model predictors. The model produces good results, and model adaptation/extensions for further improvements are discussed in the conclusion section. Two versions of the model are presented according to the level of warnings that the model can generate based on driving conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of the potential applications of the work.
Auteurs: Nasim Arbabzadeh;Mohsen Jafari;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 446 - 460
Editeur: IEEE
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» A DC–DC Converter With Quadratic Gain and Bidirectional Capability for Batteries/Supercapacitors
Résumé:
Energy storage devices are essential to provide voltage and frequency stability in renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind. Due to operational requirements of distributed generation systems, energy storage devices like batteries and supercapacitors need bidirectional dc–dc converters to allow charge or discharge exchange according with the necessary conditions. In this paper, a new nonisolated bidirectional quadratic converter characterized by high voltage gain in both step-down (Buck) and step-up (Boost) operation modes is proposed. In addition to the wide conversion range, it presents continuous input and output current and reduced charging/discharging ripple. All these features allow an optimized operation between the dc bus and storage devices. The operation principle of the proposed converter in both condition modes (step-down and step-up), the converter design, as well as the theoretical analysis in different conditions will be discussed. Finally, the performance of the proposed converter is confirmed through simulation and experimental results.
Auteurs: Vitor Fernão Pires;Daniel Foito;Armando Cordeiro;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 274 - 285
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Deep Cascade of Convolutional Neural Networks for Dynamic MR Image Reconstruction
Résumé:
Inspired by recent advances in deep learning, we propose a framework for reconstructing dynamic sequences of 2-D cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) images from undersampled data using a deep cascade of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to accelerate the data acquisition process. In particular, we address the case where data are acquired using aggressive Cartesian undersampling. First, we show that when each 2-D image frame is reconstructed independently, the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art 2-D compressed sensing approaches, such as dictionary learning-based MR image reconstruction, in terms of reconstruction error and reconstruction speed. Second, when reconstructing the frames of the sequences jointly, we demonstrate that CNNs can learn spatio-temporal correlations efficiently by combining convolution and data sharing approaches. We show that the proposed method consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods and is capable of preserving anatomical structure more faithfully up to 11-fold undersampling. Moreover, reconstruction is very fast: each complete dynamic sequence can be reconstructed in less than 10 s and, for the 2-D case, each image frame can be reconstructed in 23 ms, enabling real-time applications.
Auteurs: Jo Schlemper;Jose Caballero;Joseph V. Hajnal;Anthony N. Price;Daniel Rueckert;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 491 - 503
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Dendritic Cell Immune System Inspired Scheme for Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation of Wind Turbines
Résumé:
In this paper, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) methodology based on an immune system (IS) inspired mechanism known as the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) is developed and implemented. Our proposed DCA-based FDI methodology is then applied to a well-known wind turbine test model. The proposed DCA-based scheme performs both detection as well as isolation of sensor faults given dual sensor redundancy, unlike other works in the literature that only address the fault detection problem and rely on analytical redundancy approach for accomplishing the fault isolation task. A nonparametric statistical comparison test is also performed to compare the performance of the DCA-based FDI scheme with another IS-based scheme known as the negative selection algorithm. Through extensive simulation case study scenarios the capabilities and performance of our proposed methodologies have been fully demonstrated and justified.
Auteurs: Esmaeil Alizadeh;Nader Meskin;Khashayar Khorasani;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 545 - 555
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Design Method for Mode-Selective Waveguide Couplers in Dual-Polarized Wideband Matched-Feed Antennas
Résumé:
A novel type of multihole directional coupler is presented as well as a design method involving novel procedures. The device couples two orthogonal TE11 modes in a circular waveguide into two orthogonal TE21 modes with specified excitations in a surrounding coaxial waveguide, which has the circular waveguide as the inner conductor. A simple, novel analytical procedure is used to determine azimuthal hole positions, such that each of the input modes couples to only the desired coaxial TE21 mode. The method is applied to a specific coupler which is designed to couple −14 dB to both higher order coaxial modes in the band from 10 to 14 GHz. The suppression of undesired modes is generally better than 40 dB. The coupler is intended for broadband dual-polarized matched feeds, which are able to compensate for the intrinsically high cross polarization of offset single reflector antenna systems.
Auteurs: Michael Forum Palvig;Peter Meincke;Erik Jørgensen;Olav Breinbjerg;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 990 - 995
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Design Strategy for Bandwidth Enhancement in Three-Stage Doherty Power Amplifier With Extended Dynamic Range
Résumé:
This paper presents a design strategy to enhance the bandwidth of three-stage Doherty power amplifier (DPA) with operation upto 12-dB back-off. Based on the proposed strategy, a broadband 48-W DPA is designed and implemented using packaged CREE GaN transistors. The measured drain efficiency of 50%–61.8% at 12-dB back-off and 51.9%–66.2% at 6-dB back-off is obtained over the frequency range of 600–900 MHz. Over this 300-MHz band, the drain efficiency is between 51.1% and 78% at saturation. This corresponds to 40% fractional bandwidth. The three-stage DPA is also linearized with a three carrier 15-MHz WCDMA signal with a PAPR of 10.6 dB at various frequencies within operating band and shows the output signal qualifies spectral mask specifications.
Auteurs: Ayushi Barthwal;Karun Rawat;Shiban K. Koul;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1024 - 1033
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Differential Evolution Performance Comparison: Comparing How Various Differential Evolution Algorithms Perform in Designing Microstrip Antennas and Arrays
Résumé:
In this article, we have undertaken a performance comparison of different variants and hybridized schemes of differential evolution (DE) algorithms with respect to several antenna and array designs. These include DE/rand/1, self-adaptive DE (SADE), DE with global and local neighborhood search (DEGL), biogeography-based optimization with DE (BBODE), modified DE (MDE), MDE with p-best crossover strategy (MDE-pBX), improved DE (IDE), harmonic search DE (HSDE), DE with an individual dependent mechanism (DE-IDP-IDM), and adaptive DE with optimization-state estimation (ADE).
Auteurs: Arindam Deb;Jibendu Sekhar Roy;Bhaskar Gupta;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 51 - 61
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Direct Current Circuit Breaker With the Grid Method
Résumé:
This paper describes the developed direct current circuit breaker with the grid method (DC CBG). The simplified DC CBG was designed and constructed. It comprises the third electrodes, as the grid of a triode, installed between the main contact electrodes. Moreover, the special-designed transformer (SDT) was designed and constructed to supply a damping high-voltage pulse to the grid electrode for suppressing the arc current. The experiment was conducted to verify the performance of the designed DC CBG. Experimental results show that the amplitude of the arc current was significantly reduced by approximately 94% after the damping high-voltage pulse generated from the SDT was applied to the third electrode. Therefore, the proposed DC CBG has the ability to be developed for practical use in the future.
Auteurs: Norasage Pattanadech;Masaaki Kando;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 412 - 418
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Domain Decomposition Scheme With Curvilinear Discretizations for Solving Large and Complex PEC Scattering Problems
Résumé:
A nonconformal and nonoverlapping domain decomposition (DD) scheme for surface integral equations is presented to analyze electromagnetic scattering from electrically large and complex perfect electric conducting objects. In this work, a discontinuous Galerkin approach is employed to avoid the introduction of artificial touching faces between adjacent subdomains. To weakly enforce the current continuity at the cutting contours of these subdomains, a novel interior penalty term is defined so that the error energy associated with the error charges can be minimized. Consequently, without the introduction of a stabilization term that relies on the line integral over interactions of nonmatching meshes, the proposed method provides an effective DD preconditioner and requires no effort to be extended to curvilinear elements for higher modeling accuracy. To show this, curvilinear Rao–Wilton–Glisson basis functions defined over curvilinear elements are employed in this work to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed DD scheme.
Auteurs: Kui Han;Yongpin Chen;Xiaofeng Que;Ming Jiang;Jun Hu;Zaiping Nie;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 242 - 246
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Dual-Data Line Read Scheme for High-Speed Low-Energy Resistive Nonvolatile Memories
Résumé:
Resistance-based memory devices are considered as a strong candidate for next-generation nonvolatile memories as well as potential application in high density embedded cache. These devices can be programmed to different resistance states by applying electrical bias. Read operation then senses the programmed state by discharging a shared data line through the memory cell. However, as the dimensions of the device scale down, its resistance increases and the distribution widens, which leads to reduced sensing margins and degradation in read performance. In the proposed dual-data line (DDL) read scheme, we recycle current flowing through the memory cell during the read operation to create an additional voltage swing on a secondary data line, and combine it with the signal on the original data line to reduce sensing time and energy. Performance comparison with the conventional read scheme is derived theoretically by using circuit analysis and verified through simulation on an array critical path constructed in 65-nm technology. Results show that the DDL scheme can improve sensing margins by an average of 86%, which translates to a sensing time reduction of 47%, across various device conditions. For the same read performance, the sensing energy is decreased by 48%.
Auteurs: Albert Lee;Hochul Lee;Farbod Ebrahimi;Bonnie Lam;Wei-Hao Chen;Meng-Fan Chang;Pedram Khalili Amiri;Kang-L. Wang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 272 - 279
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Euclidean Approach for Ranking Intuitionistic Fuzzy Values
Résumé:
In the literature on Atanassov intuitionistic fuzzy sets, several methods have been proposed in order to obtain a ranking on intuitionistic fuzzy values. However, some problems may arise when working with these methods, such as the inadmissibility problem, the nonrobustness problem, the indifference problem, etc. Based on the concept of the Euclidean distance, we propose a novel approach for ranking intuitionistic fuzzy values, which addresses these problems. With the aid of its geometrical representation, we rank the intuitionistic fuzzy values in accordance with the following basic principle: The closer the intuitionistic fuzzy value is to the most favorable intuitionistic fuzzy value, the higher the ranking of the intuitionistic fuzzy value is. Moreover, we extend this approach by taking into account human cognitive bias, which reflects a decision maker's attitude toward positive or negative consequences in decision problems involving uncertainty. Finally, we generalize our approach by introducing the Minkowski distance, and show that the generalized approach also addresses the problems encountered by the existing methods.
Auteurs: Zhaojun Xing;Wei Xiong;Hailin Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 353 - 365
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Family of Adaptive Decorrelation NLMS Algorithms and Its Diffusion Version Over Adaptive Networks
Résumé:
In order to increase the convergence rate of the normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm for highly correlated signals, a family of adaptive decorrelation NLMS variants is proposed in this paper. First, an adaptive decorrelation NLMS algorithm is presented to reduce the computational complexity of the existing decorrelation NLMS scheme. Then, by introducing a norm constraint on the decorrelation filter taps, the weight-constraint decorrelation NLMS (WCDNLMS) method is proposed. Third, on the WCDNLMS basis, a combination scheme of two weight-constraint decorrelation filters is developed to obtain an appropriate decorrelation parameter in different stages, i.e., large norm at transient state and small norm upon convergence. In addition, by extending the filter combination to adaptive networks, the diffusion combined weight-constraint decorrelation NLMS algorithm is devised for distributed estimation with colored inputs, and its theoretical performance is also analyzed. Finally, computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms and agreement with theoretical calculations.s
Auteurs: Sheng Zhang;Hing Cheung So;Wen Mi;Hongyu Han;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 638 - 649
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Family of Series-Resonant DC–DC Converter With Fault-Tolerance Capability
Résumé:
The series-resonant dc–dc converter (SRC) is widely applied in a large range of voltage and power. In most applications, fault tolerance is a highly desired feature and it is obtained through redundancy. This paper proposes a fault-tolerance solution for the SRC, which could drastically reduce the need of redundancy. Using the proposed scheme, the full-bridge-based SRC or multilevel-based SRC can be reconfigured in a half-bridge topology, in order to keep the converter operational even with the failure (open circuit or short circuit) of one switch. Since the proposed scheme can be applied to the full-bridge-SRC and multilevel SRC, a family of fault-tolerant converter is proposed in this work. The advantages of the proposed approach are minimum of additional hardware and no deterioration of the converter efficiency. The proposed fault-tolerance solution was experimentally tested in a 10 kW SRC prototype with input voltage of 700–600 V. A short-circuit fault in a semiconductor is tested and the results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Auteurs: Levy Ferreira Costa;Giampaolo Buticchi;Marco Liserre;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 335 - 344
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fast $V_{th}$ Measurement (FVM) Technique for NBTI Behavior Characterization
Résumé:
In this letter, a novel fast threshold voltage ( ${V}_{th}$ ) measurement (FVM) technique is proposed and demonstrated, which could perform ${I}$ ${V}$ characterization of MOSFETs within 1 ns. With the advanced FVM technique, down to 1-ns negative biased temperature instability (NBTI) characterization was successfully carried out for Si pFinFETs at 14-nm technology node. It is experimentally confirmed that the nano-second-level fast recoverable traps, which are generated during NBTI stress, could lead to the underestimation of ${V}_{th}$ degradation under micro-second-level measurement speed. Furthermore, it is found that even when the ${V}_{th}$ measurement is performed within 1 ns after the stress removal, it is still not fast enough to be the real recovery-free measurement. Yet, with the proposed FVM technique, NBTI characteristics could be characterized more accurately and closer to its intrinsic behaviors.
Auteurs: Xiao Yu;Ran Cheng;Wei Liu;Yiming Qu;Jinghui Han;Bing Chen;Jiwu Lu;Yi Zhao;
Apparue dans: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 172 - 175
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fast, Adaptive, and Energy-Efficient Data Collection Protocol in Multi-Channel-Multi-Path Wireless Sensor Networks
Résumé:
A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of sensor nodes which can self-organize to relay information such as measurements to a base station. To reduce latency and increase data transmission throughput, multi-channel data collection protocols have been proposed to enable simultaneous parallel transmissions between pairs of nodes within the network. However, the existing protocols require long scheduling phase, are less dynamic to network traffic changes, and/or compromise on efficiency by relying on the back-off mechanism such as carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). This paper proposes a fast, adaptive, and energyefficient data collection protocol in multi-channel-multi-path WSN. The protocol consists of two major phases. The first phase is the node-channel assignment that uses the graph coloring technique to resolve the issue of node overhearing and interference. The second phase is the scheduling and packet forwarding, in which a novel three-dimensional parallel iterative matching (3DPIM) algorithm is proposed to pair up sensor nodes in different time slots so as to enable collision-free multiple simultaneous data transmissions in every time slot. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol can achieve fast and energy-efficient data collection while being adaptive to the change of network traffic in WSN.
Auteurs: Soung-Yue Liew;Cheng-Kiat Tan;Ming-Lee Gan;Hock Guan Goh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 30 - 40
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Ferromagnetic Design for Current Sensor Temperature Characteristics Improvement
Résumé:
The temperature drift of the current sensor with an air gap limits its measurement accuracy, so a ferromagnetic design is presented to improve the temperature characteristics of the current sensor by an air-gapped magnetic field intensity self-compensation. In this paper, the magnetostriction and thermal expansion are introduced into a hysteresis model within the temperature range from 258 to 358 K, and the relationship between the permeability and the air-gapped length of amorphous alloy is analyzed. The results show that the air-gapped length increases as the temperature increases, resulting in the air-gapped magnetic field intensity weakened. Moreover, the permeability of amorphous alloy increases as the temperature increases, resulting in the air-gapped magnetic field intensity strengthened. Hence, the air-gapped magnetic field intensity can be self-compensated with the amorphous alloy. The effectiveness of the design is verified experimentally with 1–10 mm air-gapped amorphous cores. In addition, in order to analyze the air-gapped magnetic field intensity changes more accurately, a new hysteresis modeling method is proposed, which can overcome the disadvantages of a J-A model for the minor hysteresis curve simulations and a Preisach model for the major hysteresis curve simulations.
Auteurs: Yukai Xiang;Qifeng Xu;Yifan Huang;Hao Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1435 - 1441
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Flexible Dual-Band Antenna With Large Frequency Ratio and Different Radiation Properties Over the Two Bands
Résumé:
The coexistence of microwave and millimeter-wave technologies becomes the inexorable trend of future wireless communication systems. The corresponding components of the system are required to cover these two frequency bands simultaneously. However, it is difficult for the existing dual-band antenna configurations to achieve a frequency ratio larger than 3. In this paper, a novel topology is proposed to solve this problem. For the desired dual-band operation, a signal routing approach is proposed to guide the microwave/millimeter signals to the specific elements, respectively. The classical aperture coupling mechanism is deliberately utilized to block the millimeter-wave signal from feeding to the microwave antenna element and route the millimeter-wave signal into the millimeter-wave antenna element. Meanwhile, the substrate- integrated waveguide (SIW)-based millimeter-wave antenna element has the high-pass nature to reject the microwave signal. Therefore, the antenna elements for microwave and millimeter-wave bands can be designed separately with a high flexibility. First, a dual-band antenna was implemented to support 5.8 and 30 GHz simultaneously by integrating an annular-ring antenna element and an SIW slot antenna element. Furthermore, different radiation properties at the two bands can be easily realized owing to the high flexibility of the proposed approach. For validation, these two antennas were fabricated and measured.
Auteurs: Bing Jie Xiang;Shao Yong Zheng;Hang Wong;Yong Mei Pan;Kai Xu Wang;Ming Hua Xia;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 657 - 667
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Formal Approach for Modeling and Simulation of Human Car-Following Behavior
Résumé:
Car-following is the activity of safely driving behind a leading vehicle. Traditional mathematical car-following models capture vehicle dynamics without considering human factors, such as driver distraction and the reaction delay. Consequently, the resultant model produces overly safe driving traces during simulation, which are unrealistic. Some recent work incorporate simplistic human factors, though model validation using experimental data is lacking. In this paper, we incorporate three distinct human factors in new compositional car-following model called modal car-following model, which is based on hybrid input output automata (HIOA). HIOA have been widely used for the specification and verification of cyber-physical systems. HIOA incorporate the modeling of the physical system combined with discrete mode switches, which is ideal for describing piece-wise continuous phenomena. Thus, HIOA models offer a succinct framework for the specification of car-following behavior. The human factors considered in our approach are estimation error (due to imperfect distance perception), reaction delay, and temporal anticipation. Two widely used car-following models called Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) and Full Velocity Difference Model (FVDM) are used for extension and comparison purpose. We evaluate the root mean square (rms) error of the following vehicle position using the traces obtained from human drives through different driving scenarios. The result shows that our model reduces the rms error in IDM and FVDM by up to 48.8% and 7.41%, respectively.
Auteurs: Jin Woo Ro;Partha S. Roop;Avinash Malik;Prakash Ranjitkar;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 639 - 648
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Four-Phase Buck Converter With Capacitor-Current-Sensor Calibration for Load-Transient-Response Optimization That Reduces Undershoot/Overshoot and Shortens Settling Time to Near Their Theoretical Limits
Résumé:
This paper presents a four-phase buck converter with capacitor-current-sensor (CCS) calibration for load-transient-response optimization that targets the theoretically minimal output-voltage undershoot $Delta V_{mathrm {US}}$ , overshoot $Delta V_{mathrm {OS}}$ , and settling time $t_{S}$ when large and rapid load-current transients $Delta I_{mathrm {load}}$ occur. The proposed CCS calibration calibrates the CCS’ equivalent impedance to emulate a scaled replica of the output capacitor’s impedance $Z_{mathrm {Co}}$ . Thus, the CCS can accurately sense the output-capacitor current $I_{mathrm {Co}}$ despite $Z_{mathrm {Co}}$ variations due to different output voltages, fabrication variations, and printed-circuit-board parasitics. Moreover, a load-transient optimizer is proposed to utilize the accurately sensed $I_{mathrm {Co}}$ to instantly detect the large and rapid $Delta I_{mathrm {load}}$ , and synchronously control the charging and discharging durations of the output inductors in all four phases, resulting in small $Delta V_{mathrm {US}}/Delta V_{mathrm {OS}}$ and short $text{t}_{S}$ . The converter is implemented in a 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS process with 1.93-mm2 chip area. For a 1.8-A/5-ns step-up (step-down) $Delta I_{mathrm {load}}$ , the measured $Delta V_{mathrm {US}}$ ( $Delta V_{mathrm {OS}})$ and $text{t}_{S}$ are 92 mV (75 mV) and 133 ns (110 ns), respectively. Compared with other state-of-the-arts, both the measured $Delta {V}_{mathrm {US}}$ ( $Delta V_{mathrm {OS}})$ and $text{t}_{S}$ in this paper are the closest to their respective theoretical limits, i.e., the fastest load-transient response with the smallest $Delta V_{mathrm {US}}$ ( $Delta V_{mathrm {OS}})$ and the shortest $t_{S}$ under the same input voltage, output voltage, output inductance, and output capacitance.
Auteurs: Yi-Wei Huang;Tai-Haur Kuo;Szu-Yu Huang;Kuan-Yu Fang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 552 - 568
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fuzzy Human Pilot Model of Longitudinal Control for a Carrier Landing Task
Résumé:
Human pilot models are tightly dependent on the specific flight tasks. For a carrier landing task, the human pilot controls the aircraft glide path by the guidance information from the Fresnel lens optical landing system (FLOLS) during the aircraft approach to the carrier. This paper focuses on the modeling of the human pilot behavior of sensing and recognizing the guidance information from the Fresnel lens of the FLOLS in longitudinal motion. A fuzzy human pilot model is built based on a fuzzy logic control theory to simulate the human pilot behavior. The simulations of carrier landing are conducted to illustrate the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy human pilot model.
Auteurs: Chen Chen;Wen-Qian Tan;Xiang-Ju Qu;Hai-Xu Li;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 453 - 466
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fuzzy Lyapunov–Krasovskii Functional Approach to Sampled-Data Output-Feedback Stabilization of Polynomial Fuzzy Systems
Résumé:
This paper presents an output-feedback exponential stabilization condition of sampled-data polynomial fuzzy control systems under variable sampling rates. Compared with previous work, the proposed method is less conservative because of the newly developed time-dependent fuzzy Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional that is based on the conventional fuzzy Lyapunov function. Moreover, the controller is allowed to contain polynomial gain matrices, thereby improving the control performance and design flexibility. This is realized by assuming the difference between the continuous- and discrete-time state vectors as time-varying norm-bounded uncertainties, which are manipulated using a robust control technique. A new sufficient condition is introduced to cast the stability condition containing the integral term as the sum-of-square conditions. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by simulations.
Auteurs: Han Sol Kim;Jin Bae Park;Young Hoon Joo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 366 - 373
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Fuzzy Restricted Boltzmann Machine: Novel Learning Algorithms Based on the Crisp Possibilistic Mean Value of Fuzzy Numbers
Résumé:
A fuzzy restricted Boltzmann machine (FRBM) is extended from a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) by replacing all the real-valued parameters with fuzzy numbers. A new FRBM that employs the crisp possibilistic mean value of a fuzzy number to defuzzify the fuzzy free energy function is presented. This approach is much clearer and easier to obtain the expression of the defuzzified free energy function and its approximation than the centroid method. Several theorems that discuss the error bounds of the approximation to ensure the rationality and validity are also investigated. Learning algorithms are given for the designed FRBM with symmetric triangular fuzzy numbers (STFNs), asymmetric triangular fuzzy numbers, and Gaussian fuzzy numbers. By appropriately choosing the parameters, a theorem is concluded that all FRBMs with symmetric fuzzy numbers will have identical learning algorithm to that of FRBMs with STFNs. This is illustrated by a case of FRBM with Gaussian fuzzy numbers. Two experiments including the MNIST handwriting recognition and the Bars-and-Stripes benchmark are carried out. The results show that the proposed FRBMs significantly outperform RBMs in learning accuracy and generalization ability, especially when encountering unlearned samples and recovering incomplete images.
Auteurs: Shuang Feng;C. L. Philip Chen;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 117 - 130
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Gain-Scheduling Approach to Nonfragile $H_{infty }$ Fuzzy Control Subject to Fading Channels
Résumé:
This paper deals with the nonfragile $H_infty$ control problem for a class of discrete-time Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems with both randomly occurring gain variations (ROGVs) and channel fadings. The system measurement is subject to fading channels described by Rice fading model where the channel coefficients are random variables taking values within given intervals. The gain matrices of the output feedback controllers are subject to random fluctuations referred to as the ROGVs. The purpose of the addressed problem is to design a parameter-dependent nonfragile output-feedback controller such that, in the presence of both ROGVs and channel fadings, the closed-loop system is exponentially mean-square stable while achieving the guaranteed $H_infty$ disturbance attenuation level. A gain-scheduling approach is developed to tackle the addressed problem where the designed controller gains are dependent on certain parameters of practical significance (e.g., packet dropout rate). Through stochastic analysis and Lyapunov functional approach, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of the desired output feedback controller ensuring both the exponential mean-square stability and the prescribed $H_infty$ performance. The explicit expression of the feedback controller is also characterized by using a semidefinite programming method. Finally, an illustrative example is given to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design method.
Auteurs: Sunjie Zhang;Zidong Wang;Derui Ding;Guoliang Wei;Fuad E. Alsaadi;Tasawar Hayat;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 142 - 154
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Gap Analysis Methodology for Product Lifecycle Management Assessment
Résumé:
Product lifecycle management (PLM) is a strategic and holistic approach for the management of information, processes, and resources supporting the entire product lifecycle from concept to disposal. Several systems are available to manage data and information during the lifecycle. A PLM system does not have to be considered as a unique solution, but as a set of software supporting different perspectives and activities related to the lifecycle management. A full comprehensive implementation of PLM systems is rare. Since PLM reflects the peculiarities of processes and data structures, implementation differences are evidently observable among companies. The design of methods and tools supporting an assessment of PLM implementation inside a company can enable a correct definition of PLM strategies and goals. Based on these premises, the paper aims to specify a methodology for carrying out a gap analysis of PLM with the scope of discovering existing technological and methodological gaps, and planning actions for improvement. The proposed methodology implements a visual and lean reference model, and an assessment questionnaire for data collection. Lesson learned and feedback from three industrial applications are also described and discussed.
Auteurs: Manuela Marra;Carla Di Biccari;Mariangela Lazoi;Angelo Corallo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 155 - 167
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Generalized and Flexible Control Scheme for Photovoltaic Grid-Tie Microinverters
Résumé:
In this paper, design and implementation of a flyback photovoltaic (PV) microinverter based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS) technique has been described for both the standalone and the grid-connected operation. The DDS technique adopted provides flexibility in the implementation of various control schemes of the PV microinverter on a simple low-cost digital signal processing type of microprocessor (dsPIC). As compared with the conventional look-up-table method used for generating sinusoidal output voltage waveforms by digital signal processing, a much higher resolution can be obtained in the voltage phase angle and magnitude owing to the adaptive nature of the look-up table implemented within the DDS architecture. The DDS technique is used in the implementation of all control schemes of a PV microinverter, such as maximum power point tracking (MPPT), phase-locked-loop (PLL), anti-islanding, and low-voltage ride-though (LVRT), with an integrated software run on a simple microcontroller. A dedicated computer simulation model is developed, where the PV panel model, the PLL in DQ reference frame, the MPPT algorithm, and the anti-islanding and LVRT features are all taken into account. The experimental results obtained on a 120-W PV flyback microinverter have verified the validity of the proposed technique for both the steady-state and the transient-state operation. The DDS technique is thus found to be quite convenient for application to module integrated converters.
Auteurs: Serkan Öztürk;Işık Çadırcı;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 505 - 516
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Genetic Algorithm-Based Heuristic Method for Test Set Generation in Reversible Circuits
Résumé:
Low power circuit design has been one of the major growing concerns in integrated circuit technology. Reversible circuit (RC) design is a promising future domain in computing which provides the benefit of less computational power. With the increase in the number of gates and input variables, the circuits become complex and the need for fault testing becomes crucial in ensuring high reliability of their operation. Various fault detection methods based on exhaustive test vector search approaches have been proposed in the literature. With increase in circuit complexity, a faster test generation method for providing optimal coverage becomes desirable. In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based heuristic test set generation method for fault detection in RCs is proposed which avoids the need for an exhaustive search. Two approaches, one involving random search and the other, involving directed search have been proposed and validated on benchmark circuits considering missing-gate fault (complete and partial), bridging fault and stuck-at fault with optimum coverage and reduced computational efforts.
Auteurs: A. N. Nagamani;S. N. Anuktha;N. Nanditha;Vinod Kumar Agrawal;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 324 - 336
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Graph Cut Approach to Artery/Vein Classification in Ultra-Widefield Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy
Résumé:
The classification of blood vessels into arterioles and venules is a fundamental step in the automatic investigation of retinal biomarkers for systemic diseases. In this paper, we present a novel technique for vessel classification on ultra-wide-field-of-view images of the retinal fundus acquired with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a fully automated artery/vein classification technique for this type of retinal imaging with no manual intervention has been presented. The proposed method exploits hand-crafted features based on local vessel intensity and vascular morphology to formulate a graph representation from which a globally optimal separation between the arterial and venular networks is computed by graph cut approach. The technique was tested on three different data sets (one publicly available and two local) and achieved an average classification accuracy of 0.883 in the largest data set.
Auteurs: Enrico Pellegrini;Gavin Robertson;Tom MacGillivray;Jano van Hemert;Graeme Houston;Emanuele Trucco;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 516 - 526
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Graphical Approach to Incident Energy Analysis
Résumé:
The goal of an incident energy analysis is to determine the largest incident energy that a worker could be exposed to at a piece of electrical equipment. This is most commonly done using the IEEE 1584 method. It is a common observation when performing this analysis that minor variations in fault current can result in large changes in a protective device's operating time and the resulting incident energy. This would not be a problem if it was possible to remove all errors from the bolted fault calculation and the arcing fault calculation. Unfortunately, the arcing fault current calculation has some margin of error and the data used in arc flash models are often estimated. A graphical approach to determining the incident energy circumvents these problems and ensures that the worst-case incident energy is determined. This graphical approach is derived from graphs of incident energy based on protective device time–current curves. An examination of the resultant graphs reveals a few maximums in the incident energy curve. These maximums are caused by the protective devices curve, the minimum and maximum arcing fault currents, and any time limitations that are applied. As a result, the locations of these maximums are easily predicted allowing the maximum incident energy to be determined by performing the IEEE 1584 calculation at a few key current values.
Auteurs: Rick Lutz;Maximilian Charbonneau;Michael Garcia;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 815 - 821
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Graphical Model of Smoking-Induced Global Instability in Lung Cancer
Résumé:
Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The most current view about lung cancer is no longer limited to individual genes being mutated by any carcinogenic insults from smoking. Instead, tumorigenesis is a phenotype conferred by many systematic and global alterations, leading to extensive heterogeneity and variation for both the genotypes and phenotypes of individual cancer cells. Thus, strategically it is foremost important to develop a methodology to capture any consistent and global alterations presumably shared by most of the cancerous cells for a given population. This is particularly true that almost all of the data collected from solid cancers (including lung cancers) are usually distant apart over a large span of temporal or even spatial contexts. Here, we report a multiple non-Gaussian graphical model to reconstruct the gene interaction network using two previously published gene expression datasets. Our graphical model aims to selectively detect gross structural changes at the level of gene interaction networks. Our methodology is extensively validated, demonstrating good robustness, as well as the selectivity and specificity expected based on our biological insights. In summary, gene regulatory networks are still relatively stable during presumably the early stage of neoplastic transformation. But drastic structural differences can be found between lung cancer and its normal control, including the gain of functional modules for cellular proliferations such as EGFR and PDGFRA, as well as the lost of the important IL6 module, supporting their roles as potential drug targets. Interestingly, our method can also detect early modular changes, with the ALDH3A1 and its associated interactions being strongly implicated as a potential early marker, whose activations appear to alter LCN2 module as well as its interactions with the important TP53-MDM2 circuitry. Our strategy using the graphical model to re- onstruct gene interaction work with biologically-inspired constraints exemplifies the importance and beauty of biology in developing any bio-computational approach.
Auteurs: Yanbo Wang;Weikang Qian;Bo Yuan;
Apparue dans: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 1 - 14
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High Sensitivity Strain Sensor Based on the Zero-Group-Birefringence Effect in a Selective-Filling High Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fiber
Résumé:
A selective-filling high birefringent photonic crystal fiber (SF-HBPCF) based Sagnac interferometer (SI) was demonstrated. The SF-HBPCF was achieved by infiltrating a high index liquid into two symmetrical air holes of the innermost layer of an index-guiding un-birefringent PCF. The birefringence characteristics of the SF-HBPCF and the strain sensing characteristics of the SF-HBPCF based SI were theoretically analyzed in detail. The group birefringence presented unique characteristics, and particularly possessed a zero value at a certain wavelength. This directly resulted in the strain sensitivities having ultrahigh even infinite value at the certain wavelength. Besides, with the change of the loaded strain, the sensitivities of the interference dips presented disparate variation trend. In experiments, the results were well matched with theoretical simulation. And the strain sensitivities from 25 pm/με to 12 pm/με were achieved from 61 με to 789 με in the type of the SF-HBPCF.
Auteurs: Tingting Han;Yan-ge Liu;Zhi Wang;Junqi Guo;Jie Yu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High Step-Down Dual Output Nonisolated DC/DC Converter With Decoupled Control
Résumé:
This paper presents a dc/dc buck–boost converter topology with high-voltage gain and dual outputs. Unlike many of the high step-down/step-up dc/dc converters, this topology uses a relatively ower number of LC components and three active semiconductor devices switched in a nonoverlapping way. Due to the duty cycle limitation, high gain (typically more than 4) is very difficult to achieve in a single-stage regular buck–boost dc/dc converter. In the proposed converter, the overall gains at both the output ports are nonlinear functions of duty-cycles of the power devices, which help achieve an overall step-down/step-up gain of 10–15. An experimental prototype converting 48 V dc to ±5 V dc at 100 W with closed loop control is developed in order to verify the operation and effectiveness of the proposed converter structure. An output voltage ripple of ±1% and a conversion efficiency of 94% are achieved according to the experimental results.
Auteurs: Ayan Mallik;Alireza Khaligh;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 722 - 731
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Efficiency Broadband Omnidirectional UHF Patch Antenna Applying Surface Plasmon Polaritons for Handheld Terminals
Résumé:
In this letter, a high-efficiency broadband omnidirectional UHF patch antenna applying surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) for handheld terminals is proposed. Corrugated metallic strip is used to work as SPPs to efficiently forward transmit electromagnetic wave for better power flow distribution on the surface of the SPPs strip. A loading spilt SPPs ring wrapping the spiral lines and patch is introduced, which compensates the phase and changes the power flowing direction for bettering its omnidirectional performance. A prototype is fabricated and tested. The measured results show a good omnidirectional radiation pattern in the H-plane and 84°–112.5° of a 3 dB beamwidth in the E-plane. Its available impedance bandwidth (| $S_{11}$| < –10 dB) is about 10% ranging from 302 to 335 MHz. The realized gain over this bandwidth ranges from 0.9 to 1.76 dBi, and the simulated results show that its radiation efficiency is greater than 90%; the peak value can reach 98.7%. The overall size of this antenna is 230 mm × 65 mm × 1 mm (0.23 ${lambda _0}$ × 0.065 ${lambda _0}$ × 0.001 ${lambda _0}$) at 302 MHz. This high-efficiency antenna with balanced broad band, high gain, wide beam, and miniaturization can be easily applied to UHF band mobile termi- als.
Auteurs: Dong Wang;Junping Geng;Kun Wang;Han Zhou;Jianping Li;Xianling Liang;Weiren Zhu;Ronghong Jin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 283 - 286
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Efficiency GaN Doherty Power Amplifier With Blended Class-EF Mode and Load-Pull Technique
Résumé:
This brief presents a new Doherty power amplifier (DPA) configuration that employs high-efficiency switched-mode Class EF as its main and auxiliary cells. A blended approach is proposed to design the load network of the PA cells, in which the fundamental-frequency load impedance is obtained through load-pull analysis whereas the harmonic load impedances are set according to the Class-EF requirements. Realized using GaN HEMTs, the DPA prototype exhibits a drain efficiency (DE) of 81% at 45-dBm peak power and 68% at 6-dB back-off power, i.e., when excited using a 2.4 GHz continuous-wave signal. The proposed DPA has a 3-dB bandwidth of nearly 300 MHz within which the DE can be maintained above 68.5%. Using 16-QAM signal with 5-MHz bandwidth and 6-dB peak-to-average power ratio, the DPA shows a DE of 69.7% and an ACLR1 of −26.6 dBc at an average output power of 39.2 dBm.
Auteurs: Ayman Barakat;Mury Thian;Vincent Fusco;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 151 - 155
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Frequency Three-Level Buck Converter With Real-Time Calibration and Wide Output Range for Fast-DVS
Résumé:
This paper presents a 50-MHz 5-V-input 3-W-output three-level buck converter. A real-time flying capacitor ( $C_{F}$ ) calibration is proposed to ensure a constant voltage of $V_{g}$ /2 across $C_{F}$ , which is highly dependent on various practical conditions, such as parasitic capacitance, time mismatches, or any loading circuits from $C_{F}$ . The calibration is essential to ensure the reliability and minimize the inductor current and output voltage ripple, thus maintaining the advantages of the three-level operation and further extending the system bandwidth without encountering sub-harmonic oscillation. The converter is fabricated in a UMC 65-nm process using standard 2.5-V I/O devices, and is able to handle a 5-V input voltage and provide a 0.6–4.2-V-wide output range. In the measurement, the voltage across $C_{F}$ is always calibrated to $V_{g}$ /2 under various conditions to release the voltage stress on the high- and low-side power transistors and $C_{F}$ , and to ensure reliability with up to 69% output voltage ripple reduction. A 90% peak efficiency and a 23–29-ns/V reference-tracking response are also observed.
Auteurs: Xun Liu;Cheng Huang;Philip K. T. Mok;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 582 - 595
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Isolation, Ultra-Wideband Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna With Monopole-Like Radiation Characteristics
Résumé:
A high-isolation, ultra-wideband simultaneous transmit and receive (STAR) antenna with monopole-like radiation characteristics is presented. The proposed STAR antenna consists of a center-located monocone and a circular array of bent loops. The monocone and the array of loops are located in the near fields of each other and serve, respectively, as the transmit (TX) and receive (RX) antennas. To achieve omnidirectional, vertically polarized radiation patterns, the array factor of the bent loops is first examined. A circular top loading and four T-shaped parasitic elements are exploited to decrease the lowest frequency of operation of the antenna without increasing its occupied volume. Finally, based upon the analysis of the array factor, four directors are strategically mounted over the ground plane to enhance the omnidirectionality of the antenna in the azimuth plane. A prototype of the antenna operating in the UHF band is fabricated and measured. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed STAR antenna achieves an isolation greater than 40 dB from 0.6 to 1.75 GHz (2.9:1 bandwidth). Furthermore, the STAR antenna is capable of maintaining consistent monopole-like radiation patterns and vertical polarization for both the TX and the RX channels across the entire band of operation.
Auteurs: Ruina Lian;Ting-Yen Shih;Yingzeng Yin;Nader Behdad;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1002 - 1007
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Level Design Framework for the Automatic Generation of High-Throughput Systolic Binomial-Tree Solvers
Résumé:
The binomial-tree model is a numerical method widely used in finance with a computational complexity which is quadratic with respect to the solution accuracy. The existing research has employed reconfigurable computing to provide faster solutions compared with general-purpose processors, but they require low-level manual design by a hardware engineer, and can only solve American options. This paper presents a formal mathematical framework that captures a large class of binomial-tree problems, and provides a systolic data-movement template that maps the framework into digital hardware. This paper also presents a fully automated design flow, which takes C-level user descriptions of binomial trees, with custom data types and tree operations, and automatically generates fully pipelined reconfigurable hardware solutions in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) bit-stream files. On a Xilinx Virtex-7 xc7vx980t FPGA at a 100-MHz clock frequency, we require 54- $mu text{s}$ latency to solve three 876-step 32-bit fixed-point American option binomial trees, with a pricing rate of 114k trees/s. From the same device and in comparison to the existing solutions with equivalent FPGA technology, we always achieve better throughput. This ranges from $1.4times $ throughput compared with a hand-tuned register-transfer level systolic design, to $9.1times $ and $5.6times $ improvement with respect to scalar and vector architectures, respectively.
Auteurs: Aryan Tavakkoli;David B. Thomas;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 341 - 354
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Performance and Temperature-Insensitive Shape Sensor Based on DPP-BOTDA
Résumé:
Distributed optical fiber strain sensing significantly increases the number of sensing points compared with fiber Bragg grating sensor, which makes it an excellent candidate for shape sensing. Theoretical analysis indicates that the spatial resolution of strain measurement is crucial to the performance of shape sensing, so a shape sensor based on differential pulse-width-pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis is proposed to improve the spatial resolution and shape sensing performance. The sensing fiber is attached on the both sides of a steel strip substrate, which enables the measurement of Brillouin frequency shifts (BFSs) of both the sides to suppress temperature crosstalk. In the experiment, first, the dependence of BFS variation on the curvature of the fiber is measured, the result of which agrees well with theory. Then the reconstruction of three shapes are demonstrated, the spatial resolution of which is 10 cm.
Auteurs: Dexin Ba;Chen Chen;Cheng Fu;Danyang Zhang;Zhiwei Lu;Zhigang Fan;Yongkang Dong;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» A High-Performance Inverted-C Tunnel Junction FET With Source–Channel Overlap Pockets
Résumé:
In this paper, we propose and simulate a new structure of a line tunnel FET employing gate over source–channel overlap pockets (GO-SCOPs). The SCOPs create vertical tunneling path within the source and the channel extension that lead to a faster thinning of the lateral tunneling barrier between the source and channel regions. As a result, an inverted C-shaped tunnel junction is formed providing both lateral tunneling and vertical tunneling. A calibrated 2-D simulation study shows that an ON-current improvement by one order is achieved in comparison with the gate over source only (GoSo) tunnel field-effect transistors with pockets. Further, the OFF-state leakage and average subthreshold swing are reduced by 44% and 21%, respectively, with an improved parasitic capacitance. This has improved the cutoff frequency from 8.3 MHz in GoSo with pockets structure to 1.19 GHz in the proposed GO-SCOP structure. Furthermore, by employing Ge SCOPs, the ON current is boosted by 4 orders of magnitude, maintaining leakage at ~0.25 fA/ $mu text{m}$ , giving ${I}_{text {ON}}/{I}_{text {OFF}} > {10}^{{9}}$ , and a much improved average subthreshold swing of ~48 mV/dec at ${V}_{ text {GS}}= {2}$ V, ${V}_{text {DS}}= {0.5}$ V.
Auteurs: Ashita;Sajad A. Loan;Mohammad Rafat;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 763 - 768
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Highly Sensitive Miniaturized Impedimetric Perchlorate Chemical Sensor
Résumé:
In this paper, we have developed a miniaturized a chemical sensor based on a new nanostructured Co-phthalocyanine (Co(II)Pc-PAA) derivative functionalized Au microelectrodes for perchlorate ClO4 detection. The morphological properties of the sensitive layer have been characterized by contact angle measurement. The response of the obtained sensor-based CoPc/Au microelectrodes has been investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The experimental impedance data of the sensor device were analyzed by an equivalent electrical circuit using a modified Randles model for better understanding the phenomena present at the sensing membrane/electrolyte interface. Therefore, under optimized working conditions in terms of polarization and frequency, best performances have been achieved when compared with those obtained in the literature for Au electrodes-based devices functionalized with the same molecule. The present chemical sensor has provided a lower detection limit (17.3 pM), the lowest achieved until now to our knowledge, with a larger linear range from 1.73 10−11 to 10−1 M. The selectivity of the sensor has been also studied by evaluating the response towards ClO4 with other interfering anions. The measurement were stable after ten days of the chemical sensor storage at room temperature. This is very promising for environmental application using rapid analyses and low-cost chemical sensors. Perspectives for a potentiometric sensor at higher concentrations were also assessed.
Auteurs: Najib Ben Messaoud;Abdoullatif Baraket;Cherif Dridi;Naglaa M. Nooredeen;Mohammed Nooredeen Abbas;Abdelhamid Errachid;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1343 - 1350
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Hybrid Method of SAR Speckle Reduction Based on Geometric-Structural Block and Adaptive Neighborhood
Résumé:
Given the improvement of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging technologies, the resolution of SAR image is largely improved and the variation of backscatter amplitude should be considered in SAR image processing. In this paper, considering the spatial geometric properties of SAR image in gray pixel space and the sample selection in the estimation of true signal, local directional property of each pixel is explored with the help of SAR sketching method, and two specially designed filters are integrated for adaptive speckle reduction of SAR images. Specifically, based on the sketch map of a SAR image, the orientation of the sketch point lying at each sketch segment is assigned to the corresponding pixel, and thus all pixels of the SAR image are classified as the directional pixels and the nondirectional pixels. For the directional pixels, given the significant directionality of its neighborhood, a geometric-structural block (GB) is built to center on it and GB-wised nonlocal means filter is designed to estimate the true values of all pixels contained in the GB. Moreover, using the local orientation, the whole image is adopted as the searching range to search the similar GBs. For the nondirectional pixels, based on the locally estimated equivalent number of looks, a novel pixel-based metric is proposed to determine the local adaptive neighborhood (AN) with which an AN-based filter is developed to estimate its true value. Besides, since some nondirectional pixels are contained in GBs, a Bayesian-based fusion strategy is designed for the fusion of their estimated values. In the experiments, three synthetic speckled images and five real SAR images [obtained with different resolutions (e.g., 3, 1, and 0.1 m) and different bands (e.g., X-band, C-band, and Ka-band)] are used for evaluation and analysis. Owing to the usage of local spatial geometric property and the combination of two different filters, the proposed method shows a reas- nable performance among the comparison methods, in terms of the speckle reduction and the details’ preservation.
Auteurs: Fang Liu;Jie Wu;Lingling Li;Licheng Jiao;Hongxia Hao;Xiangrong Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 730 - 748
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Job Sizing Strategy for High-Throughput Scientific Workflows
Résumé:
The user of a computing facility must make a critical decision when submitting jobs for execution: how many resources (such as cores, memory, and disk) should be requested for each job? If the request is too small, the job may fail due to resource exhaustion; if the request is too large, the job may succeed, but resources will be wasted. This decision is especially important when running hundreds of thousands of jobs in a high throughput workflow, which may exhibit complex, long tailed distributions of resource consumption. In this paper, we present a strategy for solving the job sizing problem: (1) applications are monitored and measured in user-space as they run; (2) the resource usage is collected into an online archive; and (3) jobs are automatically sized according to historical data in order to maximize throughput or minimize waste. We evaluate the solution analytically, and present case studies of applying the technique to high throughput physics and bioinformatics workflows consisting of hundreds of thousands of jobs, demonstrating an increase in throughput of 10-400 percent compared to naive approaches.
Auteurs: Benjamin Tovar;Rafael Ferreira da Silva;Gideon Juve;Ewa Deelman;William Allcock;Douglas Thain;Miron Livny;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 240 - 253
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Library for Combinational Circuit Verification Using the HOL Theorem Prover
Résumé:
Interactive theorem provers can overcome the scalability limitations of model checking and automated theorem provers by verifying generic circuits and universally quantified properties but they require explicit user guidance, which makes them quite uninteresting for industry usage. As a first step to overcome these issues, this paper presents a formally verified library of commonly used combinational circuits using the higher-order logic theorem prover HOL4. This library can in turn be used to verify the structural view of any arbitrary combinational circuit against its behavior with very minimal user-guidance. For illustration, we verified several combinational circuits, including a 24-bit adder/subtractor, the 8-bit shifter module of the c3540 benchmark, the 17-bit EqualZ_W module of the c2670 benchmark, a 16:1 Multiplexer, and a 512-bit Multiplier.
Auteurs: Sumayya Shiraz;Osman Hasan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 512 - 516
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Lightweight, Wideband, Dual-Circular-Polarized Waveguide Cavity Array Designed With Direct Metal Laser Sintering Considerations
Résumé:
A lightweight, wideband, and dual-circular-polarized (CP) waveguide cavity array operating at Ku-band is proposed. To obtain dual-orthogonal linear polarizations (LPs), the basic radiating element is a square cavity fed by two waveguides. By properly tuning the feed networks, equal amplitude and phase of radiated electric field for two orthogonal polarizations can be obtained, culminating in a $16 times 16$ dual-LP array. A wideband waveguide-based hybrid coupler is integrated with a dual-LP array to achieve the final dual-CP array. The proposed dual-CP array is fabricated by applying the direct metal laser sintering method. Its overall size is 288 mm $times288$ mm $times52$ mm, and it has weighted slightly less than 1.3 kg. The measured results show that for both the CP ports, the array has exhibited desirable bandwidth of 12.25–14.5 GHz (at VSWR <2), and its isolation is better than 15 dB. The measured gain ranges from 29.5 to 32.4 dBic, while the axial ratio is better than 4.5 dB over the entire band. A total efficiency of over 60% can be obtained for both the LHCP and RHCP radiations.
Auteurs: Shi-Gang Zhou;Guan-Long Huang;Tan-Huat Chio;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 675 - 682
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Linear Differential Transimpedance Amplifier for 100-Gb/s Integrated Coherent Optical Fiber Receivers
Résumé:
This paper presents the design and measurements of a 32-Gb/s differential-input differential-output transimpedance amplifier (TIA) employed in dual polarization integrated coherent receivers for 100-Gb Ethernet. A circuit technique is shown that uses a replica TIA to stabilize the operating point of the two shunt-feedback input stages as well as to cancel the dc part of the two complementary input currents and balances their offset. The TIA can be operated in two modes, an automatic gain control mode to retain a good total harmonic distortion (THD) over a wide dynamic range and a manual gain control mode. Electrical as well as optical-electrical characterization of the TIA are presented. It achieves a maximum differential transimpedance of 74 dB $Omega $ , 33 GHz of 3-dB bandwidth, 12.2 pA/ $sqrt {text {Hz}}$ of average input-referred noise current density with the photodiode, 900 mVpp of maximum differential output swing, less than 1% of THD for 600 mVpp differential output swing, and 500 $mu text{A}_{text {pp}}$ differential input current. The linearity of the TIA is furthermore demonstrated with PAM4 measurements at 25 Gbaud. The dual TIA chip is fabricated in a 0.13- $mu text{m}$ SiGe:C BiCMOS technology, dissipates 436 mW of power and occupies 2 mm2 of area.
Auteurs: Ahmed Awny;Rajasekhar Nagulapalli;Marcel Kroh;Jan Hoffmann;Patrick Runge;Daniel Micusik;Gunter Fischer;Ahmet Cagri Ulusoy;Minsu Ko;Dietmar Kissinger;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 973 - 986
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Locally Active Memristor and Its Application in a Chaotic Circuit
Résumé:
In this brief, we propose a novel locally active memristor based on a voltage-controlled generic memristor model and use the analysis methods of standard nonlinear theory to analyze its characteristics and illustrate the concept of local activity via the dc v-i loci of memristor and non-volatile memory via the power-off plot of memristor. A chaotic attractor is observed with a simple nonlinear circuit that only includes three circuit elements in parallel: 1) a nonlinear locally active memristor; 2) a linear passive inductor; and 3) a linear passive capacitor. Then, we analyze the dynamical characteristics of the above circuit and show complex bifurcation behaviors.
Auteurs: Peipei Jin;Guangyi Wang;Herbert Ho-Ching Iu;Tyrone Fernando;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 246 - 250
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Location-Query-Browse Graph for Contextual Recommendation
Résumé:
Traditionally, recommender systems modelled the physical and cyber contextual influence on people’s moving, querying, and browsing behaviors in isolation. Yet, searching, querying, and moving behaviors are intricately linked, especially indoors. Here, we introduce a tripartite location-query-browse graph (LQB) for nuanced contextual recommendations. The LQB graph consists of three kinds of nodes: locations, queries, and Web domains. Directed connections only between heterogeneous nodes represent the contextual influences, while connections of homogeneous nodes are inferred from the contextual influences of the other nodes. This tripartite LQB graph is more reliable than any monopartite or bipartite graph in contextual location, query, and Web content recommendations. We validate this LQB graph in an indoor retail scenario with extensive dataset of three logs collected from over 120,000 anonymized, opt-in users over a 1-year period in a large inner-city mall in Sydney, Australia. We characterize the contextual influences that correspond to the arcs in the LQB graph, and evaluate the usefulness of the LQB graph for location, query, and Web content recommendations. The experimental results show that the LQB graph successfully captures the contextual influence and significantly outperforms the state of the art in these applications.
Auteurs: Yongli Ren;Martin Tomko;Flora Dilys Salim;Jeffrey Chan;Charles L. A. Clarke;Mark Sanderson;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 204 - 218
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Look-Up Table-Based Ray Integration Framework for 2-D/3-D Forward and Back Projection in X-Ray CT
Résumé:
Iterative algorithms have become increasingly popular in computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction, since they better deal with the adverse image artifacts arising from low radiation dose image acquisition. But iterative methods remain computationally expensive. The main cost emerges in the projection and back projection operations, where accurate CT system modeling can greatly improve the quality of the reconstructed image. We present a framework that improves upon one particular aspect—the accurate projection of the image basis functions. It differs from current methods in that it substitutes the high computational complexity associated with accurate voxel projection by a small number of memory operations. Coefficients are computed in advance and stored in look-up tables parameterized by the CT system’s projection geometry. The look-up tables only require a few kilobytes of storage and can be efficiently accelerated on the GPU. We demonstrate our framework with both numerical and clinical experiments and compare its performance with the current state-of-the-art scheme—the separable footprint method.
Auteurs: Sungsoo Ha;Klaus Mueller;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 361 - 371
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low Complexity Sparse Code Multiple Access Detector Based on Stochastic Computing
Résumé:
Sparse code multiple access (SCMA) is a promising multiple access technology candidate for the next-generation communication system, which can dramatically improve spectral efficiency. However, the major challenge of SCMA is the very high detection complexity. Stochastic computing is a new number representation, which can carry out complex computations with very simple logics. In this paper, we extend the application of stochastic computing to SCMA detection and propose a low complexity stochastic SCMA detector. We also design three novel stochastic logic architectures: a new low hardware cost bit stream generation architecture, a low hardware cost stochastic function node update architecture and a fast converging stochastic variable node update architecture. Analysis and simulation results show that the proposed stochastic SCMA detector saves 69% complexity compared with the traditional SCMA detectors with a comparable bit error rate performance. The synthesis results with SIMC 65-nm CMOS technology show that the proposed stochastic SCMA detector achieves 640 Mbps total system throughput with only 1.45-mm $^{{{2}}}$ cell area.
Auteurs: Kaining Han;Jianhao Hu;Jienan Chen;Hao Lu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 769 - 782
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Error Energy-Efficient Fixed-Width Booth Multiplier With Sign-Digit-Based Conditional Probability Estimation
Résumé:
Fixed-width multipliers are intensively used in many DSP applications whose accuracy and energy efficiency affect the whole digital system to a large extent. To improve the computation accuracy, a Booth-encoded sign-digit-based conditional probability estimation approach is proposed. A symmetric error distribution is obtained by taking the sign bit of the Booth-encoded multiplier into consideration when applying the conditional probability. In addition, a more generalized mux-based estimation method is formulated for the circuit implementation, which reduces the delay time and power dissipation. Simulation results show that the proposed multiplier exhibits the best computation accuracy with the least energy per operation. It performs even better for those operand lengths that are not multiples of 4. The maximum reduction on energy-delay-error product can reach 14.8% compared with all its contenders among various operand lengths.
Auteurs: Ziji Zhang;Yajuan He;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 236 - 240
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Integrated-Phase-Noise 27–30-GHz Injection-Locked Frequency Multiplier With an Ultra-Low-Power Frequency-Tracking Loop for mm-Wave-Band 5G Transceivers
Résumé:
An ultra-low-phase-noise injection-locked frequency multiplier (ILFM) for millimeter wave (mm-wave) fifth-generation transceivers is presented. Using an ultra-low-power frequency-tracking loop (FTL), the proposed ILFM is able to correct the frequency drifts of the quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator of the ILFM in a real-time fashion. Since the FTL is monitoring the averages of phase deviations rather than detecting or sampling the instantaneous values, it requires only 600 $mu text{W}$ to continue to calibrate the ILFM that generates an mm-wave signal with an output frequency from 27 to 30 GHz. The proposed ILFM was fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process. The 10-MHz phase noise of the 29.25-GHz output signal was −129.7 dBc/Hz, and its variations across temperatures and supply voltages were less than 2 dB. The integrated phase noise from 1 kHz to 100 MHz and the rms jitter were −39.1 dBc and 86 fs, respectively.
Auteurs: Seyeon Yoo;Seojin Choi;Juyeop Kim;Heein Yoon;Yongsun Lee;Jaehyouk Choi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 375 - 388
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Power Low-Noise Decade-Bandwidth Switched Transconductor Mixer With AC-Coupled LO Buffers
Résumé:
In this paper, a modified switched transconductor mixer structure is proposed to realize a low-power, low-noise, and wideband mixer, in which, a transconductor stage with fixed dc operating point is switched by the ac-coupled local oscillator (LO) signal. In this way, only a small LO signal is required to turn the transconductor ON and OFF, and thus a low-power LO buffer can be used to achieve wideband down-conversion. To further expand the bandwidth, the inductive peaking technique is used at the RF port to eliminate the capacitive loading effect resulted from the input transistors. As the noise power from LO stage appears in common mode at the mixer output, good noise performance is realized, too. Additionally, output distortion-cancellation IF buffer is added to facilitate the testing. Fabricated in the 0.13- $mu text{m}$ CMOS process, 15.5–17.5-dB gain and 4–5.2-dB noise figure are achieved in 1–10-GHz bandwidth. The mixer core consumes a low power of 8.3 mW from 1.5-V supply, and the whole chip consumes 22.3 mW, including the IF buffer. The active chip area is less than 0.2 mm2.
Auteurs: Hao Li;Ahmed M. El-Gabaly;Carlos E. Saavedra;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 510 - 521
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Power OFDM-Based Wake-Up Mechanism for IoE Applications
Résumé:
This brief presents a wake-up mechanism for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation-based systems by coding a low data-rate wake-up signal in transmitter without extra circuitry overhead. It is achieved by controlling data pattern for each OFDM subcarrier in one symbol of frame to produce an equivalent amplitude-modulated (AM) signal as a wake-up query without contaminating protocol integrity. A low-power wake-up receiver is used to demodulate this signal and interpret the wake-up query. A system using proposed wake-up mechanism has been built based on IEEE 802.11ah standard. Measurement results demonstrate that an AM-type wake-up signal with a data-rate of 31.25 Kb/s is generated through the proposed method. Moreover, an envelope detector with −35-dBm sensitivity at 900 MHz has been implemented in 0.13- ${mu }text{m}$ CMOS technology for wake-up signal detection and consumes 120-nW power.
Auteurs: Hualei Zhang;Chunhui Li;Sizheng Chen;Xi Tan;Na Yan;Hao Min;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 181 - 185
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Power Wearable Stand-Alone Tongue Drive System for People With Severe Disabilities
Résumé:
This paper presents a low-power stand-alone tongue drive system (sTDS) used for individuals with severe disabilities to potentially control their environment such as computer, smartphone, and wheelchair using their voluntary tongue movements. A low-power local processor is proposed, which can perform signal processing to convert raw magnetic sensor signals to user-defined commands, on the sTDS wearable headset, rather than sending all raw data out to a PC or smartphone. The proposed sTDS significantly reduces the transmitter power consumption and subsequently increases the battery life. Assuming the sTDS user issues one command every 20 ms, the proposed local processor reduces the data volume that needs to be wirelessly transmitted by a factor of 64, from 9.6 to 0.15 kb/s. The proposed processor consists of three main blocks: serial peripheral interface bus for receiving raw data from magnetic sensors, external magnetic interference attenuation to attenuate external magnetic field from the raw magnetic signal, and a machine learning classifier for command detection. A proof-of-concept prototype sTDS has been implemented with a low-power IGLOO-nano field programmable gate array (FPGA), bluetooth low energy, battery and magnetic sensors on a headset, and tested. At clock frequency of 20 MHz, the processor takes 6.6 $mu$ s and consumes 27 nJ for detecting a command with a detection accuracy of 96.9%. To further reduce power consumption, an application-specified integrated circuit processor for the sTDS is implemented at the postlayout level in 65-nm CMOS technology with 1-V power supply, and it consumes 0.43 mW, which is 10 $times$ lower than FPGA power consumption and occupies an area of only 0.016 mm$^2$.
Auteurs: Ali Jafari;Nathanael Buswell;Maysam Ghovanloo;Tinoosh Mohsenin;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 58 - 67
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Low-Reference Spur MDLL-Based Clock Multiplier and Derivation of Discrete-Time Noise Transfer Function for Phase Noise Analysis
Résumé:
A multiplying delay-locked loop (MDLL)-based clock multiplier with a two-step phase aligning architecture and a dual-pulse charge-pump (CP) is proposed to reduce the reference spur level. The architecture has a phase-locked loop mode to align the coarse phase and an MDLL mode to obtain a delay-lock. With non-overlap dual phase detector pulses in the MDLL mode, the CP is directly calibrated in the runtime to minimize its phase offset. A discrete-time noise transfer function (NTF) is also derived to estimate the phase noise of multiplying-delay line from that of delay line. The NTF includes aliasing effect and shows better accuracy than the prior voltage controlled oscillator realignment-based approaches. This clock multiplier occupies an active area of 0.047-mm2 in 40-nm CMOS process. The clock multiplication ratio ( $N$ ) is an integer value from 8 to 27. With a low-cost 19.2-MHz TCXO reference, 153.6–518.4 MHz clocks were successfully generated, and a phase noise of −124 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset from a 518.4-MHz clock, rms jitter of 1.28 ps, and −65.5 dBc reference spur were measured. The power dissipation at 518.4 MHz was 2.6 mW from the 1.8 and 1.1 V supplies.
Auteurs: Geum-Young Tak;Kwyro Lee;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 485 - 497
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Mapping Methodology of Boolean Logic Circuits on Memristor Crossbar
Résumé:
Alternatives to CMOS logic circuit implementations are under research for future scaled electronics. Memristor crossbar-based logic circuit is one of the promising candidates to at least partially replace CMOS technology, which is facing many challenges such as reduced scalability, reliability, and performance gain. Memristor crossbar offers many advantages including scalability, high integration density, nonvolatility, etc. The state-of-the-art for memristor crossbar logic circuit design can only implement simple and small circuits. This paper proposes a mapping methodology of large Boolean logic circuits on memristor crossbar. Appropriate place-and-route schemes, to efficiently map the circuits on the crossbar, as well as several optimization schemes are also proposed. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, a multibit adder and other nine more complex benchmarks are studied; the delay, area and power consumption induced by both crossbar and its CMOS control part are evaluated.
Auteurs: Lei Xie;Hoang Anh Du Nguyen;Mottaqiallah Taouil;Said Hamdioui;Koen Bertels;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 311 - 323
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Metamaterial Absorber With a New Compact Unit Cell
Résumé:
This letter focuses on the modification of a unit cell of a metamaterial absorber to decrease its operational frequency. By decreasing the operational frequency, we can increase capability of the absorber for practical applications and decrease sensitivity of the structure response to the curvature. The structure has been implemented by the array of the unit cell on the FR4 substrate in the front of a conductive plate. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate the structure provides 20% decrease in the minimum operation frequency with respect to the reference structure. Also, the operating frequency range of the structure with absorptivity more than 90% is 1.35–3.5 GHz, i.e., 88% fractional bandwidth. The structure has appropriate response under oblique incident angle from 0° to 40°.
Auteurs: Mohsen Dehghan Banadaki;Abbas Ali Heidari;Mansor Nakhkash;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 205 - 208
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Method for Local Parametric Fault Diagnosis of a Broad Class of Analog Integrated Circuits
Résumé:
This paper is devoted to local parametric fault diagnosis of nonlinear analog integrated circuits designed in a bipolar and CMOS technology. An algorithm is proposed that allows estimating values of the considered set of the parameters. The algorithm exploits a diagnostic test performed in a dc state, leading to output voltages measured in the circuit. Each of the output voltages is a parameterized function. A system of overdetermined equations fitting the parameterized functions to the data points is created. An efficient iterative method is developed for solving this overdetermined system of nonlinear equations exploiting the idea of the normal equation and a homotopy concept. It is implemented in the manner that allows operating with the functions not given in the explicit analytical form, which commonly occurs in real nonlinear circuits. For illustration, two examples are given, including a circuit with bipolar transistors and a CMOS circuit designed in a nanometer technology. They reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Auteurs: Michał Tadeusiewicz;Stanisław Hałgas;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 328 - 337
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Method to Evaluate Cycloconverters Commutation Robustness Under Voltage and Frequency Variations in Mining Distribution Systems
Résumé:
This paper analyzes the influence of frequency and voltage variation over the commutation of thyristors in high-power cycloconverters. The analysis demonstrates that frequency and voltage variations can cause commutation failures generating significant damages in cycloconverters. In addition, the paper proposes a method based on the energy required to commutate thyristors to determine the maximum frequency and voltage variations that will not affect commutation between thyristors, information that can be later used for the correct setting of protection relays. The analysis is complemented with simulated results using data obtained from high-power thyristors used in commercially available cycloconverters. Finally, a commutation failure in a 15 MW grinding mill cycloconverter drive is presented and analyzed.
Auteurs: G. Francisco Silva;T. Luis Morán;T. Miguel Torres;V. Christian Weishaupt;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 858 - 865
Editeur: IEEE
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» A mighty antenna from a tiny CubeSat grows
Résumé:
By packing big antennas into small satellites, JPL engineers are making space science cheap
Auteurs: Nacer E. Chahat;
Apparue dans: IEEE Spectrum
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 32 - 37
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Millimeter-Wave Self-Mixing Array With Large Gain and Wide Angular Receiving Range
Résumé:
The concept of self-mixing antenna arrays is presented and analyzed with respect to its beneficial behavior of large gain over a wide angular range. The large gain is attained by an antenna array with large element spacing, where all array element signals are combined approximately coherently over the entire angular receiving range. This functionality is achieved by the self-mixing principle, where an exact description via an intermediate frequency (IF) array factor is derived. For verification purposes, a $4times 2$ self-mixing array is fabricated and measured in the frequency range from 34 to 39 GHz. A multiple-resonance millimeter-wave microstrip patch antenna has been especially developed to achieve large bandwidth and a wide angular receiving range. The broad beamwidth is achieved by two parasitic patches and suitable radiation characteristics of the resonant modes. The self-mixing of the receive signal is realized at each antenna element by a Schottky diode with an optimized operating point. The down-converted array element signals are then combined and measured at the IF. The receive power is increased significantly over a large angular range compared with conventional array feeding techniques. The simulation results are verified by measurements, which show very good agreement.
Auteurs: Jonas Kornprobst;Thomas J. Mittermaier;Thomas F. Eibert;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 702 - 711
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Millinewton Resolution Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Catheter Two-Dimensional Distal Force Sensor for Cardiac Catheterization
Résumé:
This paper presents the development of a novel 2-D fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based micro-force sensing design for detection of catheter tip-tissue interaction forces. A miniature and symmetrical force-sensitive flexure-based catheter distal sensor has been prototyped, and four optical fibers inscribed with one FBG element each have been mounted on it for force and temperature decoupling and detection. The axial property of the tightly suspended fiber configuration has been utilized with a pre-tensioned force, and the embedded FBG element can be stretched and compressed to sense the force-induced and temperature-caused strain variations. The proposed configuration can achieve an improved resolution and sensitivity than the light intensity modulation-based approaches, and avoid the limitations closely associated with the commonly direct FBG-pasting methods, such as chirping failure and low repeatability. Finite-element modeling (FEM)-based simulation has been implemented to investigate the flexure performance and improve the design. The decoupling approach has been proposed based on the simulation results and implemented to separate and determine the force and temperature. The force-sensing flexure prototype has been calibrated to achieve a resolution of around 4.6 mN within the measurement range of 0 ~ 3.5 N. Both static calibration experiments and in-vitro dynamic experiments have been performed to prove the feasibility of the proposed design. The decoupling capacity of force and temperature will benefit its broad implementations in generalized intravascular catherization procedures.
Auteurs: Chaoyang Shi;Tianliang Li;Hongliang Ren;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1539 - 1546
Editeur: IEEE
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» A mmWave Wideband Slot Array Antenna Based on Ridge Gap Waveguide With 30% Bandwidth
Résumé:
A wideband $8 times 8$ element slot antenna array based on ridge gap waveguide feeding network has been proposed for mmWave applications. The antenna subarray consists of four radiating slots which are excited by a groove gap cavity layer. Compared with previously published works, the proposed planar antenna array has quite wide impedance bandwidth. The antenna covers a wideband of 50–67.8 GHz with 30% impedance bandwidth (VSWR < 2). Also, the antenna has only 2.5 dB gain variation over the entire bandwidth which implies also good radiation characteristics for the proposed antenna. The maximum measured gain value is about 27.5 dBi with a total efficiency of 80% for the proposed antenna within the band of interest. With this performance, the proposed antenna array is a promising candidate for mmWave communication systems.
Auteurs: Ali Farahbakhsh;Davoud Zarifi;Ashraf Uz Zaman;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1008 - 1013
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Modified All-Digital Polar PWM Transmitter
Résumé:
This paper presents an all-digital polar pulsewidth modulated (PWM) transmitter for wireless communications. The transmitter combines baseband PWM and outphasing to compensate for the amplitude error in the transmitted signal due to aliasing and image distortion. The PWM is implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) core. The outphasing is implemented as pulse-position modulation using the FPGA transceivers, which drive two switch-mode power amplifiers fabricated in 130-nm standard CMOS. The transmitter has an all-digital implementation that offers the flexibility to adapt it to multi-standard and multi-band signals. As the proposed transmitter compensates for aliasing and image distortion, an improvement in the linearity and spectral performance is observed as compared with a digital-PWM transmitter. For a 20-MHz LTE uplink signal, the measurement results show an improvement of up to 6.9 dBc in the adjacent channel leakage ratio.
Auteurs: Muhammad Touqir Pasha;Muhammad Fahim Ul Haque;Jahanzeb Ahmad;Ted Johansson;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 758 - 768
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Modular Multilevel HVDC Buck–Boost Converter Derived From Its Switched-Mode Counterpart
Résumé:
This paper begins by presenting a generalized methodology for conceptualizing modular multilevel converter (MMC)-based dc–dc topologies, which is predicated on the concept of harmonic power balance. A compelling implication is that MMC-based variants of conventional switched-mode converter structures can be realized. As an example case study, this paper introduces a new dc–dc MMC for HVdc applications, which is derived from the classical buck–boost dc–dc converter. This new topology, which is revealed to be an alternative option to the well-known dual active bridge (DAB) converter with an intermediate transformer, offers buck–boost functionality and bidirectional dc fault blocking, using only two quadrant switching cells. Comparative analysis shows the proposed topology has lower operating losses and a lower total magnetics rating in comparison to an MMC-based DAB solution for dc stepping ratios around unity. A dynamic controller is developed that regulates the converter dc power throughput while maintaining balanced capacitor voltages. The converter operating principle, dynamic controller performance, and dc fault blocking are verified by simulation.
Auteurs: Sunny H. Kung;Gregory J. Kish;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 82 - 92
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multi-Functional In-Memory Inference Processor Using a Standard 6T SRAM Array
Résumé:
A multi-functional in-memory inference processor integrated circuit (IC) in a 65-nm CMOS process is presented. The prototype employs a deep in-memory architecture (DIMA), which enhances both energy efficiency and throughput over conventional digital architectures via simultaneous access of multiple rows of a standard 6T bitcell array (BCA) per precharge, and embedding column pitch-matched low-swing analog processing at the BCA periphery. In doing so, DIMA exploits the synergy between the dataflow of machine learning (ML) algorithms and the SRAM architecture to reduce the dominant energy cost due to data movement. The prototype IC incorporates a 16-kB SRAM array and supports four commonly used ML algorithms—the support vector machine, template matching, $k$ -nearest neighbor, and the matched filter. Silicon measured results demonstrate simultaneous gains (dot product mode) in energy efficiency of 10 $times $ and in throughput of 5.3 $times $ leading to a 53 $times $ reduction in the energy-delay product with negligible ( $le $ 1%) degradation in the decision-making accuracy, compared with the conventional 8-b fixed-point single-function digital implementations.
Auteurs: Mingu Kang;Sujan K. Gonugondla;Ameya Patil;Naresh R. Shanbhag;
Apparue dans: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 642 - 655
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multi-Level Cache Framework for Remote Resource Access in Transparent Computing
Résumé:
With the increasing demand for high performance of remote resource access in transparent computing, there is a requirement to design a multi-level cache framework to alleviate the network latency. Existing cache frameworks in CPU and web systems cannot be applied simply because the remote resource access architecture needs to be extended to support multi-level cache, and the ways that resources are accessed in transparent computing require specific designs. In this article, we propose a multi-level cache framework for remote resource access in transparent computing. Based on the low latency feature of edge computing, we extend the remote resource access architecture to an architecture with multi-level caches by setting caches on the edge devices with low network latency. Then we design a hybrid multi-level cache hierarchy and make corresponding cache policies. Through a case study, we show the effectiveness of our design. Finally, we discuss several future research issues for deploying the proposed multi-level cache framework.
Auteurs: Di Zhang;Yuezhi Zhou;Yaoxue Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Network
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 140 - 145
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multi-Time-Step Finite Element Algorithm for 3-D Simulation of Coupled Drift-Diffusion Reaction Process in Total Ionizing Dose Effect
Résumé:
In order to study the total ionizing dose degradation and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity effect for semiconductor devices in the space environment, we simulate the drift-diffusion-reaction processes in a 3-dimensional SiO2–Si system. Since the time scale of the drift-diffusion processes is much larger than that of the chemical reaction processes, we use a multi-time-step algorithm to calculate the two types of processes, respectively. In this paper, partial differential equations used to describe the electrodiffusion processes are solved by a finite element method, while the chemical reactions taking place independently in every mesh node are solved as ordinary differential equations. We reproduce qualitative properties of total ionizing dose effect and compare our numerical results with experimental data and other simulation results. This paper paves a way for 3-D simulation of total ionizing dose and enhanced low dose rate sensitivity with high efficiency and robustness.
Auteurs: Jingjie Xu;Zhaocan Ma;Hongliang Li;Yu Song;Linbo Zhang;Benzhuo Lu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 183 - 189
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multi-Type Features Method for Leg Detection in 2-D Laser Range Data
Résumé:
People detection is an important topic in the fields of security, intelligent environments, and robotics. Current research on people detection based on a single laser range finder is mostly focused on leg detection. However, in practical environments, where legs are likely to be touching or partially occluded, the current methods suffer from a low detection rate and precision. This paper proposes a multi-type features method for leg detection in 2-D laser range data. This method consists of segmentation, through which the laser range data are divided into segments; feature definition and extraction, in which three types of features, including relative distance statistical features, spatial relationship features and nearest neighbor features, are introduced and combined with classic geometric features; and classification, by which a strong classifier is generated using the real AdaBoost algorithm and segments are classified as leg or non-leg. Three 2-D laser range data sets are used for the experiments. The experimental results show that the proposed features are robust and effective in detecting both separated legs and touched or partially occluded legs.
Auteurs: Dalin Li;Lin Li;You Li;Fan Yang;Xinkai Zuo;
Apparue dans: IEEE Sensors Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1675 - 1684
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multiband Compact Reconfigurable PIFA Based on Nested Slots
Résumé:
This letter presents a new planar inverted-F antenna design that is dedicated for integration within mobile devices such as phones and tablets. The proposed antenna structure is based on nested capacitive slots in order to achieve a multiband behavior. The presented antenna is also reduced in size by 60%. The antenna is then reconfigured using positive-intrinsic-negative (p-i-n) diodes that are embedded within the antenna structure. Frequency reconfiguration is achieved to ensure that all the various commercial and required bands of interest are covered. Two prototypes are fabricated and measured where good agreement is noticed between the simulated and measured data.
Auteurs: Fatima A. Asadallah;Joseph Costantine;Youssef Tawk;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 331 - 334
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multiband Dual-Polarized Omnidirectional Antenna for 2G/3G/LTE Applications
Résumé:
A multiband dual-polarized omnidirectional antenna for 2G/3G/Long Term Evolution (LTE) mobile communications is proposed in this letter, which consists of horizontal polarization (HP) and vertical polarization (VP) element with separate feeds. The VP element consists of three polygonal radiation patches with three equally spaced legs shorted to the ground plane. The HP element consists of three wideband slot loop structures, which is nested on the top of the VP element. Three slot loop structures provide a 360° coverage for HP and enhance its bandwidth. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the frequency bands of 1650–2900 MHz for HP and 780–2700 MHz for VP can be achieved. The reflection of VP improves the gain of the HP element at least 1 dBi after nesting. The gain of HP element is more than 3 dBi for LTE, and the gain of VP element is more than 5 dBi in the LTE band and 1.5 dBi in the 2G band. Port isolation larger than 30 dB and low-gain variation levels are also obtained. The proposed antenna can be applied in mobile communications.
Auteurs: Hongyun Wen;Yihong Qi;Zibin Weng;Fuhai Li;Jun Fan;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 180 - 183
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multichannel Phase Tunable Microwave Photonic Mixer With High Conversion Gain and Elimination of Dispersion-Induced Power Fading
Résumé:
A microwave photonic system that can realize frequency up- and down-conversion, multichannel phase shift, high conversion gain, and elimination of dispersion-induced power fading is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The scheme is based on an integrated dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying modulator that contains two dual parallel Mach–Zehnder modulators (X-DPMZM and Y-DPMZM). The X-DPMZM implements dual side band carrier suppression (DSB-CS) modulation of radio frequency signal, and the Y-DPMZM implements frequency shift of an optical carrier. They are combined in orthogonal polarizations to implement frequency up- and down-conversion. The polarization multiplexed signal will go through polarization controllers and polarizers to implement multichannel phase shift. In the experiment, the phase shift can be tuned independently over 360° in each channel. By suppressing the optical carrier, the conversion gain and LO isolation are improved by 20.5 dB and 51.26 dB, respectively, compared with conventional dual side band modulation scheme. In addition, the proposed scheme can achieve a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 103.6 dB·Hz2/3.
Auteurs: Weile Zhai;Aijun Wen;Wu Zhang;Zhaoyang Tu;Huixing Zhang;Zhongguo Xiu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Photonics Journal
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multidisciplinary Industrial Robot Approach for Teaching Mechatronics-Related Courses
Résumé:
This paper presents a robot prototype for an undergraduate laboratory program designed to fulfill the criteria laid out by ABET. The main objective of the program is for students to learn some basic concepts of embedded systems and robotics, and apply them in practice. For that purpose, various practical laboratory exercises were prepared to teach different aspects of communications, control, mechatronics, and microcontrollers. The practicals are organized such that the students can systematically solve real-world problems. The most important feature of the presented program is that, it incorporates interdisciplinary knowledge, and inculcates technical and professional skills required in pursuing a successful career. Furthermore, students and instructors can modify the software and hardware units of the robot prototype as necessary, to explore more ideas and to apply the robot in other mechatronics-related courses. A digital electronics course taught at the Automation Department at Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico, is presented as a case study in which the evaluation process was based on ABET criteria and the corresponding student outcomes. A student survey elicited students’ observations of, and interest in, the learning process. The positive student feedback and student academic outcomes indicate that the inclusion of prototype had a significant impact on student academic outcomes.
Auteurs: Mariano Garduño-Aparicio;Juvenal Rodríguez-Reséndiz;Gonzalo Macias-Bobadilla;Suresh Thenozhi;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Education
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 55 - 62
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multidisciplinary PBL Approach for Teaching Industrial Informatics and Robotics in Engineering
Résumé:
This paper describes the design of an industrial informatics course, following the project-based learning methodology, and reports the experience of four academic years (from 2012–13 to 2015–16). Industrial Informatics is a compulsory course taught in the third year of the B.Sc. degree in industrial electronics and automation engineering at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain. The course had students develop an embedded controller for a 2DoF SCARA robot that drew a specific trajectory. The robot was built with the LEGO Mindstorms kit and the controller was implemented with NXC, a C-like programming language for the NXT brick. In this activity, students became aware of their learning needs and had to work proactively, both autonomously and in teams. The course design achieved several objectives: 1) students learned the course material; 2) soft skills demanded by employers were reinforced; and 3) the material was structured into project tasks for students to perform. The article analyses two indicators: 1) qualification marks and 2) student satisfaction.
Auteurs: Isidro Calvo;Itziar Cabanes;Jerónimo Quesada;Oscar Barambones;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Education
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 21 - 28
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multifunctional Antenna with a Small Form Factor: Designing a Novel Series-Fed Compact Triangular Microstrip Ring Resonator Antenna Array
Résumé:
This article examines a noval series-fed triangular microstrip ring resonator (TMRR) antenna array. Each radiating element is made up of a wavelength-long microstrip line with the two ends joined together to form an isosceles triangle. The antenna array is fed by an N-shaped microstrip feed line and excited by a coaxial feed probe. The operational mechanism of the proposed feed system in terms of its electrodynamics is examined with respect to its relative size occupancy, dispersion along the feed line, and the feed effect on the spatial orientation of the propagated radio waves. The size occupancy of the antenna array is 45 mm<sup>2</sup> x 60 mm<sup>2</sup> with a measured reflection coefficient S<sub>11</sub> of -27.5 dB at a resonant frequency of 5.76 GHz. The simulated S<sub>11</sub> is -29.2 dB at a resonant frequency of 5.8 GHz. The measured gain is roughly 10.46 dBi using the absolute gain method. The resulting antenna array is compact in size and exhibits reasonable performance in terms of gain, reflection coefficient, low mass/volume, and weight.
Auteurs: Seyi S. Olokede;Mohd F. Ain;
Apparue dans: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 62 - 71
Editeur: IEEE
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» A Multistate Single-Connection Calibration for Microwave Microfluidics
Résumé:
With emerging medical, chemical, and biological applications of microwave-microfluidic devices, many researchers desire a fast and accurate calibration that can be achieved in a single connection. However, traditional on-wafer or coaxial calibrations require measurements of several different artifacts to the data prior to measuring the microwave-microfluidic device. Ideally, a single artifact would be able to present different impedance states to correct the vector network analyzer data, minimizing drift and eliminating artifact-to-artifact connection errors. Here, we developed a multistate single-connection calibration that used a coplanar waveguide loaded with a microfluidic channel. We then used measurements of the uncorrected scattering parameters of the coplanar waveguide with the channel empty, filled with deionized water, and filled with 30 w% (30 grams per liter) of saline to construct an eight-term error model and switch-term correction. After correction, the residuals between measured scattering parameters and with the literature-based finite-element simulations were below −40 dB from 100 MHz to 110 GHz. This multistate single-connection calibration is compatible with both wafer-probed and connectorized microwave-microfluidic devices for accurate impedance spectroscopy and materials characterization without the need for multiple device measurements.
Auteurs: Xiao Ma;Nathan D. Orloff;Charles A. E. Little;Christian J. Long;Isaac E. Hanemann;Song Liu;Jordi Mateu;James C. Booth;James C. M. Hwang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1099 - 1107
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter for Cooperative Localization
Résumé:
To solve the problem of unknown noise covariance matrices inherent in the cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles, a new adaptive extended Kalman filter is proposed. The predicted error covariance matrix and measurement noise covariance matrix are adaptively estimated based on an online expectation-maximization approach. Experimental results illustrate that, under the circumstances that are detailed in the paper, the proposed algorithm has better localization accuracy than existing state-of-the-art algorithms.
Auteurs: Yulong Huang;Yonggang Zhang;Bo Xu;Zhemin Wu;Jonathon A. Chambers;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 353 - 368
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Class of Planar Ultrawideband Modular Antenna Arrays With Improved Bandwidth
Résumé:
The theory, design, fabrication, and measurement of a new class of planar ultrawideband modular antenna (PUMA) arrays are presented. The proposed PUMA array class achieves twice the bandwidth (from 3:1 to 6:1) of the conventional shorted via-based PUMA without using an external matching network and while retaining convenient unbalanced feeding, manufacturing, and assembly characteristics. The chief enabling technical innovation hinges upon the reconfiguration of shorting vias into capacitively-loaded vias that simultaneously: 1) mitigate low-frequency bandwidth-limiting loop modes and 2) shift problematic common-mode resonances out-of-band. A simple theoretical model based on ridged waveguides is proposed that qualitatively and quantitatively explains this novel common-mode mitigation. An infinite array operating over 3.53–21.2 GHz (6:1) is designed to achieve active VSWR < {2, 2.5, 3.8} while scanning to {broadside, 45°, 60°}, respectively, without oversampling the aperture. D-plane cross-polarization is around {−15, −10} dB for {45°, 60°} scans with high efficiency, i.e., 0.5 dB co-polarized gain loss on average. A dual-polarized prototype 256-port (128 elements per polarization) array is fabricated and measured having good agreement with full-wave finite array simulations.
Auteurs: John T. Logan;Rick W. Kindt;Michael Y. Lee;Marinos N. Vouvakis;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 692 - 701
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New CNN-Based Method for Multi-Directional Car License Plate Detection
Résumé:
This paper presents a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) -based method for high-accuracy real-time car license plate detection. Many contemporary methods for car license plate detection are reasonably effective under the specific conditions or strong assumptions only. However, they exhibit poor performance when the assessed car license plate images have a degree of rotation, as a result of manual capture by traffic police or deviation of the camera. Therefore, we propose the a CNN-based MD-YOLO framework for multi-directional car license plate detection. Using accurate rotation angle prediction and a fast intersection-over-union evaluation strategy, our proposed method can elegantly manage rotational problems in real-time scenarios. A series of experiments have been carried out to establish that the proposed method outperforms over other existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of better accuracy and lower computational cost.
Auteurs: Lele Xie;Tasweer Ahmad;Lianwen Jin;Yuliang Liu;Sheng Zhang;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 507 - 517
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Fault Classifier in Transmission Lines Using Intrinsic Time Decomposition
Résumé:
As nonstationarity exists in fault signals of transmission lines, their classification and quantification remain a challenging issue. This paper presents a new scheme for feature extraction in an attempt to achieve high fault classification accuracy. The proposed scheme consists of three steps: first, the proper rotation components (PRCs) matrix of current signals captured from one end of the protected line is constructed using the intrinsic time decomposition, a fast time-domain signal processing tool with no need for sensitive tuning parameters. Second, the singular value decomposition and nonnegative matrix factorization are employed to decompose the PRCs into its significant components. Finally, eight new normalized features extracted from the output of the data processing techniques are fed into the probabilistic neural network classifier. The data processing techniques employed for classification substantially improve the overall quality of the input patterns classified and increase the generalization capability of the trained classifiers. The proposed scheme is evaluated through two simulated sample systems in the PSCAD/EMTDC software and field fault data. Moreover, the effects of the current transformer saturation, decaying dc component, and noisy conditions are evaluated. The comparison results and discussion regarding the different aspects of the problem confirm the efficacy of the proposed scheme.
Auteurs: Mohammad Pazoki;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 619 - 628
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Inversion Method Based on Distorted Born Iterative Method for Grounded Electrical Source Airborne Transient Electromagnetics
Résumé:
A new iterative inversion algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the electrical conductivity profile in a stratified underground medium for the grounded electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic (GREATEM) system. In forward modeling, we simplify the mathematical expressions of the magnetic fields generated by a finite line source in the layered ground to semianalytical forms in order to save the computation time. The Fréchet derivative is derived for the electromagnetic response at the receivers due to a small perturbation of the conductivity in a certain layer underground. The initial expression of the Fréchet derivative has an expensive triple integral and contains the Bessel function in the integrand. It is simplified by partially eliminating the integration along the source line and deriving the analytical expression for the integration in the vertical direction inside the perturbed layer. In the inverse solution, we use the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM). This is the first time that the DBIM is applied to data measured by the GREATEM system. Besides, the forward and inverse procedures are carried out in the frequency domain and based on the Fréchet derivative of a line source. We demonstrate the validity of our forward model, Fréchet derivative, inverse model, and the precision as well as robustness of the inversion algorithm through numerical computation and comparisons. Finally, we apply the inversion algorithm to the measured data and compare the retrieved conductivity to the actual drilling data.
Auteurs: Bingyang Liang;Chen Qiu;Feng Han;Chunhui Zhu;Na Liu;Hai Liu;Fubo Liu;Guangyou Fang;Qing Huo Liu;
Apparue dans: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 877 - 887
Editeur: IEEE
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» A New Microfabrication Method for Ion-Trap Chips That Reduces Exposure of Dielectric Surfaces to Trapped Ions
Résumé:
Accumulated electrostatic charges on the dielectric surfaces of ion traps are known to induce stray fields, leading to ion micromotions. In typical microfabricated ion-trap chips, metal electrodes are electrically isolated using thick dielectric pillars, which can accumulate stray charges on their sidewalls. This letter presents a new microfabrication method for ion-trap chips that reduces the exposure of dielectric surfaces to trapped ions. The dielectric pillars are fabricated with large T-shaped overhangs, and the sidewalls and top surfaces are coated with AlCu (1%) films. The bottom sides of the overhang parts provide electrical isolation. To prevent oxidation of the AlCu (1%) films, the electrode surfaces are coated with an additional Au film. The fabricated chips were implemented to trap 174Yb+ ions, and the laser-induced stray fields were measured. The results indicated that the trap chip fabricated by the newly developed method generates significantly smaller stray fields as compared with previous chips. [2017-0233]
Auteurs: Seokjun Hong;Yeongdae Kwon;Changhyun Jung;Minjae Lee;Taehyun Kim;Dong-il Dan Cho;
Apparue dans: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Date publication: 02.-2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 28 - 30
Editeur: IEEE
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